Chapter 1 Introduction
Countries and governments in the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different kind of trades through out what call e-government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, they need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for e-government purposes (Traunmiiller and Klaus Lenk, 2002).
So, information technology IT, digital and networking considered a crucial requirements for the companies to extend their operation scope in the global. So organizational spending on information technology (IT) and utilize the technology to support different strategic and operational objectives to give the strength for the competitive strategy (support the different aspects of business), (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003).
Therefore, Information technology can be defined in various ways Like information technology includes hardware, software and telecommunication equipment which is used to capture, process, and store and distribute information ( Global text -information system-Richard T. Watson -2007¬chapter 1). Also information technology refers to “office, computing machines, communications equipment, instruments, photocopiers and related equipment, and software and related services (Brynjolfsson, 1991). Even Information Technology (IT) refers to “Any equipment, or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment which is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission.” (DODD 4630.5, January 11, 2002).
when the companies attempt to adopt the technology they face problems about the acceptance of the employees for the technology , some companies still can’t predict the success from implementing new technology among the employees, some fail in adopting particular technology and some face resistance for accepting or adopting the technology, another companies didn’t get the benefits that they expect from accepting or adopting the technology ,therefore, the companies turn to study the technology users conceptual about technology and the factors that could affect the acceptance for the technology (Alsohybe, 2007).
Since information technology is supporting our economy throughout the reductions in the cost of obtaining, processing, and transmitting information are changing the way we do business so no company can escape its effects. General Managers know the importance of information technology and how it effect in the work. As more and more they spend their investment capital and their time in information technology and its effects, an executive have a growing awareness that the technology can no longer be the exclusive area of IT departments or IS departments, Executives recognize the need to become directly involved in the management of the new technology since they see their competitors use information for competitive advantage, These In the face of rapid change, however, they don’t know how (S Rivard, L Raymond, D Verreault, 2006).
In order to help managers respond to the challenges of the information developing and how will advances in information technology affect competition and the sources of competitive advantage and what are the opportunities for investing in information technology. For that managers must first understand the information technology (Yen & Subramanian & chino, 1997).
So this study is going to examine the factors that influence information technology acceptance in the public sector in the republic of YEMEN to enhance the accepting, adopting and the usage of information technology among the workers in the public sector. Beside facilitate the information transaction between the managements and between the government utilities with spotlight in the role of information technology strategies in these utilities to support the accepting, adoption for the technology. Even this study is going to examine the support of the government to adopt the information technology as government infrastructure toward E-government.
Republic of Yemen’s Background
The Republic of Yemen is an Arab country located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bounded on the north by Saudi Arabia and by the Arab Sea. Oman lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen and the Red Sea lies in the west of the Republic of Yemen.
The total area of the Republic of Yemen is about 555,000 square Kilometer, and the population of the Republic of Yemen is 18 million. The official language of the country is Arabic and Islam is the official religion of the country. The ethnic groups in the Republic of Yemen are predominantly Arab, but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans. The Yemeni Rial (YR) is the official currency unit, but visitors can exchange most of the international currencies in exchange establishments or banks all over towns. Currently, the Republic of Yemen is enjoying a stable political, economic, and social system based on respect and openness with the rest of the world. This stability provides an opportunity for the country to improve its economy and service provision to its citizen and move along with the rest of the world.
The Republic of Yemen has three national independence days: September 26, 1962 when the king of North the Republic of Yemen, at that time, was overthrown and making the country a republic instead of a kingdom, November 30, 1967 when South the Republic of Yemen, at that time, had become independent from United Kingdom. The Unification Day on May 22, 1990, when the Republic of Yemen was established by the merger of South the Republic of Yemen and North the Republic of Yemen. The legal system of the Republic of Yemen is based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law. The Republic of Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab World. It has reported strong growth since 2000, and its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. (CIA – The World Fact book – Yemen & profile about Yemen, 2005: Countries, L. D, 2009)
Since the unification of the Republic of Yemen in 1990, the president was determined to establish a new way of governance. The government represented by the president initiated a plan to develop the new country infrastructure and build a democratic administrative system, which is responsible for the provision of public services to all Yemenis whether in the country or abroad. Since 1990, the Republic of Yemen has been trying to pursue a clear social strategy for developing new sources of income for its people, find new ways of investment in the country, reform the government, and establish new private sector participation to enhance the economical growth of the country (Ministry of Development, Republic of Yemen, 2000). The main objective of the government now and then was to improve the efficiency of the governmental administrative capabilities for better and improved services.
The Republic of Yemen long-term’s strategy aimed to develop a reliable and efficient administration and government by improving and reforming its ministries and institutions to deliver better public services for all its citizens and gain recognition around the world.
However, not all the goals were aimed at improving the governmental functions were achieved. There are still problems facing the government plan to reform like, inflated bureaucracy, lack of collaboration between ministries and agencies, illiteracy, and a lack of direct vision of the future of the country. In its attempt to overcome these problems, the government of the Republic of Yemen has launched a reform project using information technology to implement e-government in the next couple of Years. The implementation of information technology will lead into collaboration between governmental agencies and lead to integrated databases that can be accessed by any agency any time thus delivering rapid and efficient service to the public.
Communication and Information Technology in the Republic of Yemen Comparing to other countries around the world, The Republic of Yemen is still lagging in term of using information technology. Tables 1 and 2 compare the Republic of Yemen to other countries around the world and show that the Republic of Yemen is still one of the lowest countries in term of using computers and Internet, telephone usage, and e government readiness. This study was prepared by the National Information Center of the Republic of Yemen, which was submitted to the Republic of Yemen’s Presidential Office and to the Shura Council on June 2005 as part of a workshop title “E-government between reality and expected goals in the Republic of Yemen” (Alsohybe, 2007).
Table l : Computers for Every 100 People and Internet Usage per 100 People for the World and for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen
|Country/Group||PC Percentage (%) per
|Internet usage per 100
Note: “E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen,” by (Yemen, National Information Center, 2005. Sana’a, Yemen, p.10).
Table 2: E-government Readiness for Some Countries Including the Republic of Yemen
Note: “E-Government between Reality and Expected Goals in the Republic of Yemen,” by (Yemen National Information Center, 2005, Sana’a, Yemen, p.
Background of the Problem
In the increasingly global today, information technology (IT) spread unpredictably that because IT considers substantial investment for organizations in all different aspects. Technology used to support the strategy and operational goals Countries and governments all over the world try to develop and extend their business and economies throughout built relation and agreements among them for the exchange and transaction for different trade aspects through out what call e=government to facilitate communicating and transmitting the information between these countries, and to achieve these, there is need to adopt the information technology as infrastructure for E-government purposes. (Traunmuller and Klaus Lenk, 2002) But unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively.
Information technology importance for adopt E-government and in order to avoid the failure in adopting E-government. Also because the change in the environment and technology the companies trying to keep going with these changes. The companies spend a lot in investing in the technology in order to empower its internal, external performance and the productivity (Alsohybe, 2007).
Some employees in the organizations not used the IT effectively or are not used, despite the extending in the investment in IT. This led the organization to inappropriate investment and west the opportunities even remain the company undeveloped. So the workers in IS and the management under pressure to locate the financial and organizational benefits from the IT investment. In order to help managers and IS practitioners to determine the factors or the motivators for IT usage and the acceptance of individuals for IT usage in order to reduce the cost and attain the maximum return of the investment in IT from the beginning (Lopez& Manson, 1997; Dadayan & Ferro, 2005).
The problem statements is that it is expected that all companies adopting, using effectively and having information technology, however, in the reality, not all the companies adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. However, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopt, use effectively or use the information technology. That means there is a gap between the ideal or the maximum usage for the information technology among the Yemeni government employees and the reality or the actual usage for the information technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate or examine the determinants and characteristics such as (individual characteristics, system characteristics, social characteristics, institutional characteristics) which are of effecting in using or adopting such technology.
Many researchers in information technology IT and information system IS support the necessity for study the factors affecting the IT acceptance and its relation with the employees performance:
- The study was conducted by (Venkatesh & Morris& Davis & Davis, 2003) to compare eight models and validate the new theory named the unified model
The study recommended that:
- Future research should identify the underlying influential mechanisms potential candidates here include computer literacy and social or cultural background, among others. Even The role of social influence and its change over time and may help explain some of the equivocal results helping to clarify the contingent nature of social influences.
- Current theoretical perspectives on individual acceptance are notably weak in providing prescriptive guidance to designers. For example applying any of the models might inform a designer that some set of individuals might find a new system difficult to use.
- Even the study recommended future study include system characteristics and self-efficacy And task technology fit.
- The study said that further work should attempt to identify and test additional boundary conditions of the model UTAUT in an attempt to provide an even richer understanding of technology adoption and usage behavior. Even different user groups, individuals in different functional areas and other organizational contexts (public or government institutions)
Another study was conducted in SAUDIA ARABI (AL Gahtani, 2004) to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture recommended more studies in the technology acceptance with focusing in the social and culture factors and using different methodologies.
Also the study which conducted by (Gorke, 2006) mention about the important of farther research for determining the factors influence the decision of using particular system and the acceptance for any new system.
Even the study (Yalcinkaya& B.A & M.S, 2007) which conducted in TURKISH in police office recommended for more studies considering other possible psychosocial or contextual variables that may affect behavioral intention of information technology usage.
Beside The study (Almutairi, 2007) which conducted in Kuwaiti ministries to examine the technology acceptance theory in their culture found that there is needed to test the TAM in other culture to insure is it globalization of the model and the possibility to use in different cultures.
More over The study was conducted in china (Kim& lee& law, 2007) This study makes an attempt to investigate the relationship between antecedents including information system quality, perceived value, and users’ acceptance of hotel front office systems (HFOSs) and the Results show information system quality affects users’ beliefs in HFOSs, it is important to realize that other factors may also play an important role in user beliefs. These factors include computer use experience and the study suggested Different studies can be performed on IT, targeting other technology systems .it is important to find factors other than perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and perceived value that can affect the attitude towards technology acceptance. A few areas can be further examined in future studies in hotels as well as in other organizations.
Even the study was conducted by (Smith, 2008) recommended more study for the technology acceptance within the private and the public sectors.
According to (Agarwal, 2000) the importance of individual differences as a significant theoretical construct in technology acceptance is indisputable. Also, he recommends for farther studies in the training as individual difference variables. Even, the study supports that technology acceptance can be facilitated by utilizing other interventions that directly affect beliefs such as training and developing a learning culture.
Also, in YEMEN the usage of the information is 10% from the system capability and that was not expected. So, there is need for investigate the reasons which inhibited the organization from getting the ideal usage from the system (wards from the minister of information technology and the vice general manager of the PTC public telecommunication corporation in Yemen KAKAL AL JABRI& KAMAL HASAN, 2007).
Therefore, there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within the public sector, and to examine technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS implementation in this arena and to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the public utilities employees even as strategy or as logistic support. Even examine the role of the information technology strategy in controlling the factors influence the acceptance for technology to develop and improve the employee’s performance. This paper presents more comprehensive, by using model of technology acceptance and suggest testing it in public sector (Alsohybe, 2007).
1. To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:
- To examine individual differences which are effecting on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.
- To examine which of system feature that influences in acceptance the technology
- To examine the social factors that influences the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.
- To examine institutional factors which are influencing the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector.
2 To evaluate the role of strategy in affecting on the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology.
To examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among public employees to improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in the following theory:
- Is there effect for individual differences on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?
- Are there effects for the system feature on the acceptance for any new technology?
- What are the influences of the social factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?
- Is there effect for the institutional factors on the acceptance for any new technology among the employees in the public sector?
What is the role of strategy in affecting the factors that influence the acceptance for any new technology?
Purpose of the study
The study plans to examine the status of technology acceptance and utilization issues among managers and employees in the public sector as individuals to~ improve the success of IS acceptance and implementation in this area. This study aims to explore the government role to support the adoption for information technology within the employees in the public sector.
Even, the study will evaluate the strategy role in controlling the variables that influences the acceptance for the information technology, and explore the information technology company characteristics that have been used in public companies in Yemen.
The government of the Republic of Yemen has an opportunity to improve the progresses and prepares its people to meet the challenges of accepting and implementing information technology in the work place to provide information and services for its citizens from any place at any time. By using IT, government of the Republic of Yemen will be able to overcome the communication problem, improve government efficiency, develop alternative sources of income, and improve the livelihood of all its citizens. The Yemeni government is committed to improve the way it is conducting its day-to-day work by adopting an information technology.
Scope of study
The study will conduct in the public sector in the republic of Yemen. The study target will be the managers and employees as individuals in the ministries and some utilities belong to the government. This will be achieved by survey
Significance of the Study
According to the study (Smith, 2008) which aimed to delineate IT differences between the public and private sectors. The study argued that private sector using the information technology more than the public sector that due to many reasons individual differences is one of these reasons, so this study was encouraged to study the acceptance and implementation of the information technology among the individuals in the public sector.
Even, this study is trying to add the culture as independent variable for the technology acceptance model TAM, TAM2 and TAM3 as empirical study and
contribution, this research will examine the acceptance and implementation of technologies in a very conservative and traditional society like The Republic of Yemen society where culture and religion dominate the way people live and perceive changes around them and can affect their acceptance or resentment of such innovation.
Also, the study combined TAM, TAM2 by setting the attitude as mediated in the relation between the believes perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the intention to use which was deleted in the technology acceptance model TAM2 and TAM3.
Also, many studies were conducted to examine three variables affecting the technology acceptance such as individual differences, system feature and social influence and some studies examine individual differences, system feature and institutional factors, however, this study aims to examine the four factors because of the effect of each variable in the acceptance of the technology and its effect on the other variables. Also, this study uses mixed theories to give more explanatory power for the technology acceptance.
Also, this study aims to predicting the behavior of the managers and employees for accept the information technology is critical issue for the companies because the important of the information technology in the government utilities in order to enhance its internal and external performance in facilitating the work flaw and smooth transferring of the information among the individuals in the different department in one unit even between the units in the public sector.
Summary for chapter 1
‘From-the -previous chapter which presents the problem statement, accept, adopting, using effectively and using information technology, however, in the reality, not all employees in those organizations accept, adopting, using, effectively and using the information technology,’ his means there is a gap between the ideal usage for the information technology among the employees of the Yemeni government and the reality of the usage for the technology inside those organizations. This leads to investigate and examine the determinants and characteristics (individual differences, system characteristic, social characteristics, institutional characteristic) which are effecting in accepting, adopting for such technology.
2.1.1- The importance of Information Technology
Rapidly advanced scientific and technological innovations, economic turbulence and uncertainty are some factors that underlie the importance of information technology investment. IT enables organizations to have the capabilities to do some adaptations proactively, so IT becomes an integral part, even a pivotal part of business activities and processes undertaken by any organization (Chau& Hu, 2002), from that, question appears about the necessity to invest in IT in order to the organizations can get the benefits from adopting the information technology and to insure the success in the adoption, Agarwal and Karahanna (2000) see the success in this investment will be a valuable when IT utilized by the intended user in the way that contributes to the strategy and the operational goals of the organization, so the user acceptance of IT is the fundamental for the success of IT investment.
The importance of technology comes from that Technology has an important impact on innovation and the development of societies and economies. This impact can be observed in three steps, the first step is substitution, new technology substitutes for the old. For example, consumers start substituting their fixed telephone lines with mobile telephones. The second step is the diffusion, when adopting the new technology is widely across society because it is law cost or better or more effective than the previous technology. The final step is transformation when the new technology ways start working and emerging because the new technology is diffused so widely in society. For example, the widespread adoption of the networking has led to interesting innovations in the communication patterns of individuals such as executives conducting business while waiting in airport lounges or traveling in trains DUTTA & MIA, 2006)World Economic Forum.
ICT offers more opportunities for economic development and plays very important role in international competitiveness, rapid economic change, and productive capacity of improvements for developing countries. ICTs offer the developing countries many opportunities, as it has done in the developed world, when it created unprecedented possibilities for them. Studies have emphasized that there is evidence of a strong linkage between GDP growth and ICT investment showing the importance of ICT investment for development.
Acquiring IT to support business needs is clearly a crucial prerequisite to exploiting the potential of IT. Unfortunately acquiring appropriate IT is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for utilizing it effectively. Organizations (i.e., leaders and managers) make primary adoption decisions, yet it is individuals within the firm who are the ultimate users and consumers of IT. Thus, it is evident that true business value from any information technology would derive only through appropriate use by its target user group. In other words, systems that are not utilized will not deliver the returns anticipated by managers. Evidence suggests that individual users can exhibit a variety of different behaviors when confronted with a new information technology: They may completely reject it and engage in sabotage or active resistance they may only partially utilize its functionality, or they may wholeheartedly embrace the technology and the opportunities it offers. Obviously, each behavior has some consequential outcomes both negative and positive for managers (Agarwal, 2000).
Also, Organizations have increased their investment in information technology IT for planning in order to increase the efficiency of their business processes. Support management decision making and improve productivity. So IT become important tool to attaining competitive advantage for the organization and improves employees productivity and efficiency (Kim & Lee & Law, 2007), besides, -Many researches investigate the relation between IT investment and increase the productivity and the performance in the companies’ one of studies (sircar et al, 2000) which found several organization success with the spending on the IT but others were failed. (Agarwal& karahanna, 2000) argue in this result that IT investment will be successful when IT utilized by the organization intended user in the way contribute to the strategy and the goals of the firms. Thus user acceptance is the key for the successes of the IT investment (Darsono, 2005), Even, for more than two decades information technology has been the focus for researcher in information system this is because IT considers as the key to lead the organization for the good performance so many researches focus in the initial usage for IT or continuous usage for IT.
2.2- The advantages and disadvantages from adopting informationtechnology
2.2.1 The advantages
- Information technology uses to support the competitive strategy in helping the companies to reduce the costs of the company to give special offer for its products and services and give better care about customers and suppliers and to develop unions among the company and the company with the environment around the company and increase the virtue of its investment in IT resources.
- By using the information technology the organization or the companies will be able to develop the value of its business throughout making the customer value the focus of its strategy which is to keep track of its customers preferences to supply its products and services anytime anywhere by using the internet or intranet and extranet(e-commerce websites).
- A lot of organizations/companies use information technology and internet to reengineering its business process because information technology can make integration for the organization to work for the same goal of the organization and this improves the design of the work flows or the requirements of the job even the organization structures even improve the efficiency and the effectiveness.