Essay Writing Service

Improving Youth Livelihood through Institutional Support

Strengthening Technical, Vocational Education and Training Institutions for Improved Livelihood Skills


ANDP Activists Network for Disabled People

AYODA Africa Youth Development Association

CLHE Candle Light for Health and Education

CSS Central and South Somalia

DFID Department for International Development

DRC Danish Refugee council

DRP Disaster Recovery Plan

EBT Enterprise- Based Training

EC European Commission

IAS International Aid Service

ICRA Islamic Children’s Rescue agency

IBT Institution Based Training

IDPs Internally Displaced Persons

IICO International Islamic Charitable Organization

ILO International Labour Organization

IOM International Office of Migration

MOE Ministry of Education

NFE Non Formal Education

NGO Non-Governmental Organization

PEER Regional Programme for Education in Emergencies

PIDAM Puntland Institute of Development Administration and Management

SCD Save the Children, Denmark

SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

SOSTA Somali Skills Training Association

STEO Skills Training Employment Opportunity

TVE Technical and Vocational Education

TVET Technical and Vocational Education Training

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

VTC Vocational Training Centre

WFL Water for Life

WFP World Food Programme

WHO World Health Organization

US AID US Agency for International Development

Fact Sheet – Somalia[1]

Somalia is situated in a place where most of the bordering countries are unstable except Kenya which has also observed post election violence in December 2007. It has border with Djibouti,Kenya, YemenandEthiopia. It has been in midst of a civil war since early nineties, the civil war has disrupted livestock breeding and agriculture which are the main stay of local economy. The major reason of civil war is due to the hidden interests of business community which is benefitting from the prevailing situation and other reason is clan based conflicts which are also at large. There are three main clans “Daroud, Hawaya and Issak “.Somalia had an invasion from Ethiopian forces in December 2006 but now they have also evacuated but the fight is still going on between Al-Shabab and government forces. Puntland and Somaliland regions have declared themselves to be autonomous of the federal government at Mogadishu. Important statistics are as under:

Area 637,667 sq km 246,201 sq miles, semi arid, 2% arable, 1.6% water

Total irrigated land 2000 sq km in 2003

Population 9,558,666 (85th[2])

Density 13/sq km (198th) 100% population belongs to Sunni Muslim branch of Islam.

GDP-PPP US $ 5.575 Billion (153rd)

GDP Per Capita US $ 600 (222nd)

Livestock and Agriculture 65 %, Industrial Sector 10% Services Sector 25 %

Exports 65% Livestock, remaining fish, hides/leather frankincense (aromatic gum)) etc

Foreign Remittances US $ 2 billion/year

Internet usage increased 44900% from year 2000 to 2007, highest in Africa

Urbanization 8% increase per year, one of the highest in Africa, currently

34 % population lives in cities.

Literacy Male: 24%, Female : 36%, 14%, 22% of Somali children are enrolled in Primary schools[3]

Executive Summary

There had been number of stakeholders working in the field of TVET in Somalia resulting in different policies and guidelines given by the state governments, different organizations and donor agencies according to their own mandate. There was no uniform approach being followed by different organizations working in the field of income generation and TVET activities. I felt the need to have a standardized approach for better delivery in the TVET sector.

An in-depth analysis was carried out on Overview of TVET management in Somalia, study of TVET institutions, Management model, a content analysis of UNESCO PEER assisted syllabuses and review of economic sectors and recommendations made after each part of this thesis report on each of these thesis components. ,

For this purpose I remained in Somalia from 12 Dec 2009 till 23 Dec 2009.Detailed meetings were held to discuss, evaluate and consolidate its finding after interaction with MOE officials, VTC managers, trainers, donors and experts from relevant technical and vocational education sectors.

The thesis also discussed in detail valuable contribution made in the TVET field by other stakeholders in Somalia. The existing management system of VTCs was analyzed. A workable management model for a VTC has been worked out for uniform implementation.

The TVET curriculum designed by UNESCO-PEER with the help of Italian Government has been recommended to all stakeholders to be adopted as standard syllabi for entire Somalia.

Finally overall analyses of the TVET situation in Somalia have been carried out to give recommendations for best possible way for improvement in this field. The need to have overall coordination between all stakeholders for TVET has been highlighted to make any intervention meaningful and effective.

It is expected that based on the thesis and the recommendations Somali Education Authorities and key implementation partners regarding the appropriate strategies to be implemented for addressing the most important areas in the field of TVET.




Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in conflict and post conflict areas is a critical component of the socio-economic development programmes as well as a fundamental component of reintegration. Acquisition of livelihood skills results in battling poverty and social exclusion in favour of self-employment. This helps to reduce unemployment, among marginalized population in conflict and post conflict countries. TVET acts for creation of skilled manpower that becomes self-employed and thereafter creates employment opportunities within their enterprises for others. It is within this framework that UNESCO PEER and other stakeholders like Diakonia and SCD has been implementing TVET projects in Somalia with the financial support of partners mainly the EC, SCIDA, Italian and Norwegian Governments. TVET curriculum/syllabi according to the market demand, training of centre managers, instructors and provision of support materials and textbooks to vocational training centres (VTCs) and initiation of standardized assessment and certification are examples of activities undertaken by UNESCO-PEER in Somalia. The syllabi and support materials so far developed have been popular with the users and a number of countries have shown interest to adapt them through the assistance of UNESCO-PEER.

Prior to the civil war that culminated in the collapse of the government in 1991, Somalia had functioning technical and vocational institutions in Mogadishu, Merka, Biadoa, Galkayo, Wajid, Kismayu, Bossaso, Burao and Hargeisa that specialized in a range of technical courses and traditional trades at craft and artisan levels. These courses were properly managed by government and the youth joined these institutions and specialized in various courses that enabled them to earn a living. Most of these institutions were, however destroyed or run down during the civil war period. Consequently, the youth who dropped out of school or were never enrolled in schools at all, found themselves helpless without any livelihood skills. This problem was aggravated by returnees who also had no skills.

The Ministries of Education in Puntland, Somaliland and Central South Somalia in collaboration with international agencies have played significant rolls in catering for the training needs of the youth and other vulnerable groups.


The main purpose is to identify and propose the best options in terms of training of youth for improving their livelihood skills through institutional development and income generation activities. The needs assessment of the VTCs was carried out to propose new skills according to the market demand.


i. To review the current approach to delivery of TVET and provide policy advice;

ii. Conduct baseline study;

iii. To Conduct needs assessment and skills gap analysis;

iv. Review existing syllabuses developed by various stakeholders

v. To study the management of the one Technical and Vocational Education Centre and on the basis of the findings recommend, the model to be applied to other TVET institutions.

1.4. SCOPE

I planned to cover the whole of Somalia for my thesis but due to insecurity in the Central South Somalia, I was not cleared to go there. The research took place in the Puntland State of Somalia (PSS) and Somaliland. The research targeted the Non Formal and technical and vocational Education sub-sector using the IDPS, Refugees, Returnees, pastoral communities and ex militia as research subjects.


i. It will act as a catalyst for streamlining the TVET sector in Somalia.

ii. The need to have better understanding of the ground realities was brought out in the study for better decision making.

iii. The requirement to have a coordinated strategy in TVET field has been highlighted. Better coordination between various stakeholders will contribute to optimum utilization of available resources.

iv. Will act for capacity building of MOE, VTCs and other stakeholders.


A number of meetings and visits were held with different stakeholders, NGOs and UN agencies working in the field of TVET. This was done in close collaboration with the Somali Ministries of Education at various levels, and other stakeholders involved in Vocational Education. Vocational Training Centers were visited and interaction was carried with their managers, students and trainers to find out their potential, weaknesses and requirement for upgrading and other Livelihood Skills opportunities An assessment of the job market was carried out to find out the livelihood skills required in Somalia.


Site visits were arranged by the field staff of UNESCO PEER in consultation with the Ministries of Education in both Somaliland and Puntland. My movement was however, hampered by the adverse security environment, making it difficult to visit such places as Galkayo, in Puntland and Berbera and Burao in Somaliland. Movement in Central South Somalia remained restricted.

Site visits were conducted in Bossasso, Hargeisa and Borama as shown in the table below;







13-15 Dec 2009

Ministry of Education

Garowe VTC



16-18 Dec 2009

1. PIDAM- Puntland Institute of Development, Administration and Management

2. Dan Door VTC

3. Bossasso College of Health Sciences

4.East Africa Fishing Factory, Tannery, Radio and Electronic repair shops

5. Telecommunications offices

6. Puntland Hospital



18-20 Dec 2009

1. Hargeisa Training Institute



4.I LO

5. Save the Children Denmark

6.ANDP( Activist Network for Disabled People)

7.ICRA( Islamic Children Refugee Agency


20-22 Dec 2009

8.AYODA (AfricaYouth Development Association

9.SOSTA( Somaliland Skills Training Association)

10 Dalphis Furniture Workshop

Due to security constraints the following institutions which offer technical and vocational courses could not be visited:

i. SIITCO(Scientific Institute and Information Technology College)

ii. BVTC( Burao Vocational Training Centre)

iii. Candlelight for Health Education and Environment,

iv. GAVO NGO Berbera

The meeting, which took place with Director of Non Formal Education (NFE) and other officials from the Ministry of Education in Puntland[4] to discuss the TVE, was very productive. The key issues like selection criteria for the trainers and trainees, adoption of standardized curriculum developed by UNESCO-PEER through out Puntland were discussed at length. It was apparent that the government was committed to getting the TVET Policy in place, it had commissioned Save the Children Denmark which had developed a TVET policy for Puntland and Somaliland and once established, future funding by donors would need to be channeled through the MOE for effective planning and quality control by the governments.

A similar visit and discussion with the senior management of the Ministry of Education in Somaliland[5] covered the strategy, policy and future planning. Unlike in Puntland, the management of TVET was being managed within institutional framework.

In the course of these visits and meetings with other stakeholders, I gained detailed prevailing knowledge about the TVET and Livelihood skills among other aspects of the TVET

Outcome of Field Visits to Puntland and Somaliland.

· It was felt that the MOE officials need more capacity building before they can effectively handle or deliver.

· Similarly the VTC managers and trainers though very keen would benefit from additional training and upgrading courses.

· The VTCs need to be improved in every manner, from repairs of buildings to provision of training equipment.

· The trainee students particularly the girls are very keen to proceed with TVET and would like diploma and degree courses to begin as soon as possible.

· The UNESCO-PEER worked curriculum has been adopted by Somaliland with Puntland taking time to implement it due to various constraints.

Trainees eager to learn new skills




According to the Guidelines issued jointly by UNESCO and ILO and adopted by UNESCO General Conference at its 31 Session in 2001 and recommended for implementation by countries according to their socio-economic status, [6]TVET (Technical and vocational education and training) is defined accordingly as “a study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes related to occupation in various sectors of economic and social life.”

It approaches the target beneficiaries to gain quality training which can bring stability and prosperity in their lives through income generation activities.

In the Somalia context, the beneficiaries of training for occupational fields, alleviation of poverty and empowerment include; out of school youth due to drop out, demobilized soldiers, returnees, disabled persons, young adults of 18-24 years, girls and women heads of households whose husbands have either fled the country or killed in civil strive, refugees and secondary school leavers. These categories of Somali nationals benefit from interventions organized by international and local non governmental organizations, UN agencies and donor communities


Organizationally, in both Somaliland and Puntland, TVET is regarded as part and parcel of Non Formal Education and is headed by a Director of Non Formal Education in the same way Formal Education is headed by a Director. It was not possible for me to establish whether similar arrangement exists in Central South Somalia. The TVET institutions in both Somaliland and Puntland are understaffed.

Through National and Regional Councils for technical and vocational education training, the units are expected to:

i) Plan and coordinate TVE Programmes, monitor supply and demand for goods and services, knowledge and skills in demand and approve new TVE Programmes,

ii) Provide a sound financial framework in which TVE costs are shared among the government, industry, community and the trainees;

iii) Establish a quality assurance mechanism that should enable the units to direct the following aspects of the TVET programme:

Ø Quality admission criteria and standards which should be reviewed and evaluated periodically

Ø Acceptable quality of curriculum and teaching materials

Ø Acceptable ratio of teaching and training staff to learners

Ø Staff qualifications

Ø Physical facilities and layout

Ø Quality and type of equipment

Ø Trainee qualification requirement

A theoretical organizational frame work is reflected in the organizational chart below


The units are constrained by the following factors:

* Understaffing of the units makes implementation of the above functions difficult

* Management and implementation of TVET is decentralized and left in the hands of various stakeholders including UN agencies, NGOs and Government institutions. The State Governments do not have the resources to run these institutions in an efficient manner. This state of affairs makes the management and control of standards difficult in a situation where implementation may be determined by donor interest. The institutions lack strategies for sustainability.


From the discussions held between me and the Ministries of Education, some UN agencies and international and local NGOs, the following intervention strategies in Somalia were mentioned:[8]

Programme proposals are developed by UN agencies and other stakeholders and their viability discussed with the local authorities who sign letters of agreement with the stakeholders defining their respective responsibilities;
Multi-sectoral approach, where organizations form themselves into a consortium to implement certain programme activities or UN agencies in strategic partnerships
Area-based approach in which local administrators are beneficiaries and act as beneficiaries and implementing partners at the same time
Specific capacity building activities with local institutions

During the various meetings and discussions, it was observed that no home grown interventions initiated by local authorities and implemented jointly with willing donors.


The methods of delivery of TVE in Somaliland and Puntland are still predominantly either IBT, Institutional based training, through full time training in establishments or EBT, Enterprise based training, in business establishments. The main differences being as shown in the table below


Centre-Based Training Mode

Enterprise-Based Training Mode

1. Recruitment of Trainees

2. Training in theory, practical and entrepreneurship (6 Months)

3.Industrial attachment (2 months) and contracts

4.Assessment of skills and products

5.Centre-based Certification

1. Conducting Training needs assessment

2.Designing appropriate syllabus

3. Recruitment and selection of trainees

4. Identification & recruitment of host trainers

5. Training (8 Months)

6. Work-based self employment programmes

7. Enterprise-Based Assessment and Certification

Source: Summarized from discussions with training management

Discussions with some stakeholders and previous studies by UNDP[9] cited the following constraints in the EBT mode of training

* It takes too long to conduct needs assessment and design tailor made courses for enterprise-based training

* Limited resources and lack of program sustainability on the part of EBT due high cost of machines

* Conflict between trainee needs and customer needs, the latter tend to command priority

* Limited training capacity in the both personnel and learning space by trainee

While institutional based training organized on full time basis requires a lot of resources and may ensure quality training, EBT comes in handy due to tailor made course. Full time institutional training may lock out young adults and working populations that need to study part time.


I. As a matter of policy , it is recommended that training institutions and the governments in Somalia consider adopting flexible modes of delivery based on part time participation, involving work and training as follows:

a) Day release system-in which workers attend an educational or training establishment for agreed period in a week

b) Sandwich system where learners-alternate between educational institution and firm, factory or other establishment

c) Block release workers are released to attend a specific programme for a specified period.

d) Open and distance education programme by correspondence

1. Local authorities in Somalia should be actively involved in designing home grown projects that address local need.

2. The governments and other agencies should work closely with host trainers for better standard of training through financial and material support including training and certification personnel.

3. Due to possible conflict of interest, local personnel who are identified beneficiaries should not act as implementing partners at the same time.



In order to conduct a base line study of the institutions visited and those which were not visited, a questionnaire was used and covered the following aspects. There was another detailed questioner of 15 pages which was used to collect the data and was sent to Prof Kim for review

Name of the institution
Number of trainees enrolled in each course
Number of instructors in each course
Qualification of instructors in each course.
Machines available
Training aids available
New trades in demand
New training aids / machines required?
Trainees ending the course
The employment status of former trainees
Overall environment of education within the institutions
Political stability, law & order and other conditions required for education

The majority of TVET centres did not provide the information required partly due to the limited time available to me necessitating obtaining some of the information online. Most of the information requested was not available online from most of the TVET centres but it was possible to obtain the information in the table below on the trades offered in the following institutions;






Havoyoco VTC


NGO-Horn of Africa Voluntary Youth Committee formed in 1992 (Havoyoco)

Centre- Based Vocational skills training in

i) Woodwork (joinery and fitting)

ii) Electricity

iii) Metal work

iv) Masonry

v) Computer Studies

vi) Garment making

vii) Office Management

Basic Literacy and Numeracy

Enterprise-Based Vocational Training.

Amoud Vocational Centre for Agricultural Technology and Environment (AVOCATE)


Government- Ministry of Education

i) General agriculture

ii) Animal Husbandry

iii) Food Processing

iv) Marketing

Burao Vocational Training Centre


NGO-Candle Light for Health and Education (CLHE)

i) Accounting

ii) Computer Studies

iii) Typing

iv) Secretarial Studies

v) Plumbing

vi) Basic Literacy and Numeracy

Berbera Port Vocational Training Centre


Government-Port Authority/ UNDP

Port Related Technical Skills

i) Cargo handling equipment

ii) Power supply and illumination

iii) Diesel mechanic

iv) Machinist course

Other Technical courses

i) Motor vehicle mechanic

ii) Plumbing and pipe fitting/welding

iii) Auto Mobile electrician course

iv) General Electrician (house wiring)

v) Woodwork

vi) Computer hardware and maintenance

Office-related Skills

i) Secretarial Studies

ii) Personnel Management

iii) Business Accounting

iv) Cost Accounting

v) Business Management

vi) Computer Applications

Dan Dor Vocational Training Centre


NGO-Dan Dor (Direct Aid to Nature Development Organization)

i) Woodwork

ii) Electricity

iii) Metal work

iv) Garment making

v) Auto Mechanics

Bossasso Port Training Centre


Government in conjunction with Bossasso Port Authority

i) Financial Accounting I

ii) Financial Accounting II

iii) Cost accounting II

iv) Management Accounting

v) Business Mathematics and Statistics

vi) Business Law

vii) Basic Economics IV

viii) Computer Application

ix) Management Principles

Source: Information gathered from the field[10]

The trades offered in the following established training centres are analyzed to illustrate vocational demand for some of the courses offered.




Skills offered

Skills requested

Skills offered

Skills requested

Syllabuses developed by UNESCO


Automobile repair training

Electricity and cooling system

Nursing and Midwifery



Metal work fabrication


Beauty Saloon

Basic Accounting II


Electronic equipment repair



Basic Accounting I



Computer Studies II


painting and Art

Computer Studies I


Building and construction

Carpentry and Joinery

Secretarial Studies

Electrical Installation

Logistics and Storekeeping

Garment Making


Hospitality Operations II

Garment making

Hospitality Operations


Metal Fabrication

Plumbing II

Plumbing III

Source: Data collected during the field visits

UNESCO PEER developed syllabuses to meet demand but the following can be observed from this table:

1. According to the need of the market following subjects were developed in the two training institution not covered by UNESCO[11]

a) Automobile repair

b) Commerce

c) Electricity and cooling system

d) Fisheries

e) Painting and Art

2. There is demand which has not been met in the following fields:

a) Nursing and midwifery

b) Beauty Salooning

3. In the UNESCO PEER study of 2002[12] demand was expressed for the following fields:

a) Business adminstration

b) Import Export management

c) Vetrinary

d) Well Engineering

e) Salesmanship

f) Natural resources management

4. Demand is determined by the following factors:

a) Environment activity; pastorists need vetrinary services, communities near the sea and river valleys require fishing techniques and those in dry and arid areas require well engineering while farming communities will go for Agriculture.

b) Skills in the market for formal employment

c) Skills for self employment.

d) Traditional trades such as carpentry, masonry,electrical installation and garment making seem to enjoy popularity but the new ones are yet to have a foothold in livelihood skills.

5. From the baseline study information received and discussions with stakeholders analyzed, the following situation still prevails in the Sub-sector:

a) Somalia is fit for intervention in almost all fields of livelihood and skills development. The best way to intervene is through development of skills through TVET. This is the shortest way to both becoming self earning or getting a job opportunity.

b) The TVET centres still lack qualified trainers, training equipment and text books in relevant TVET programmes Some of the available text books are still written in English and due to the low academic level of trainees, they cannot use books effectively while Somali translation versions do not exist

c) The standard curriculum developed by UNESCO-PEER needs to be adopted in all VTCs in order to have a common syllabi. It will also help to determine a common grading system and the quality of the grading system will improve.


1. Planning for higher levels courses needs to be done for enhancing management, administrative and technical skills of the VTC managers and business executives by stakeholders.

The following subjects which have been identified as creating skill gaps and which by their very nature should be used in regular full time training institutions be developed by UNESCO PEER which has accumulated experience in this area:

a) Business Administration

b) Import Export Management

c) Veterinary

d) Natural Resources Management

e) Well Engineering

f) Automobile repair

g) Commerce

h) Salesmanship

3. Issues related to management and inadequate facilities are taken up by institutional managers, who should develop master plans for these institutions with a view to making them sustainable.

4. TVET managers should work out a mechanism for getting some of the textbooks in specified courses translated to facilitate their use by trainees



A number of donor organizations, UN agencies and local and international non governmental organizations are active in supporting capacity building and other activities in Somalia. The information summarizes interventions and achievements. Some of the agencies may wish to partner with others for implementation of programmes.

Due to time constraint, and insecurity mainly in Central south Somalia, this information was obtained partly online in order to ensure accuracy of what is reported. These activities for these organizations are summarized in the table below and reported in detail after the table.







Present status


Recovery and sustainable livelihood program- agriculture based skills

CSS in middle Shabelle


3300 trained in Agriculture and book keeping skill

1350 are in gainful employment

Consortium headed by SCD

PETT Project

Northern Somalia

Youth, girls, women and other vulnerable groups

5500 trained in various vocatio

With Our Resume Writing Help, You Will Land Your Dream Job
Resume Writing Service, Resume101
Trust your assignments to an essay writing service with the fastest delivery time and fully original content.
Essay Writing Service, EssayPro
Nowadays, the PaperHelp website is a place where you can easily find fast and effective solutions to virtually all academic needs
Universal Writing Solution, PaperHelp
Professional Custom
Professional Custom Essay Writing Services
In need of qualified essay help online or professional assistance with your research paper?
Browsing the web for a reliable custom writing service to give you a hand with college assignment?
Out of time and require quick and moreover effective support with your term paper or dissertation?