Table of Contents
1.4 Projects Aim and Objectives
2.3 iBeacon Bluetooth Low Energy Features
2.4 iBeacon Positioning System
2.5 Enhancing iBeacon based Micro-Location with Particle Filtering
2.6 Indoor Positioning Of Mobile Devices With Agile iBeacon
2.7 Does iBeacon will change the future of shopping?
2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of iBeacon.
3.1 Existing and Proposed System
3.2 Evaluation of Existing Equipment
3.3 Comparison of Similar System
3.4 Interface of Existing System
4.SYSTEM REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS
5.1 Overall System Architecture
6.SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
How are we going to help retailers to market their products? Hence this paper presents an IBeacons based on indoor positioning system for huge shopping malls. At first it will analyse the advantages of beacons compared to NFC and other indoor positioning systems. This beacon uses three-layer architecture of Internet of Things to have message-push-services. At last, these beacons use shortest distance algorithm Floyd to find the nearby sensors to sense the nearest BLE devices. Hence, I decided to provide more accurate, cost efficient approach to indoor positioning of mobile application using IBeacons.
1.1 Overview of the projects
An indoor positioning system for malls to make their way of marketing effective and efficient, in recent days we have used Wireless Communication technology to show their products available with more offers in different time frames with short range of areas. At present, indoor positioning systems are increasingly perfect. These systems are realized through WLAN and Bluetooth technologies which are really cost effective. Bluetooth technology uses to measure signal strength to find the nodes and prerequisites for most of the application. In they formed a IOS and Android-based system which serves as a iBeacon. (Pointr Blog, 2014) In this tools gathered statistics regarding the temporal and spatial variation of the RSSI values observed in the Android-enable mobile device for all iBeacon. Paper (D.Giovanelli, 2015)investigate the usage of iBeacon Bluetooth Low Energy(BLE) which is basic for the developing of wearable devices with elevated data throughput requirements such as Health-Related application. Paper(Shinsuke Kajioka, 2014) demonstrates the installation of a amount of iBeacon (BLE) gadgets in around a room and perception of guides by compact gadgets with RSSI to accomplish key learning of references points and attainability of area estimation. In (Markus Khne,2015) they demonstrate the luggage tracking use case for iBeacon and evaluate its possibilities and restrictions of using iBeacon. The White Paper (VeriFone,2013) discusses the Bluetooth Low Energy and iBeacon technology along with its applications and limitations.
This Bluetooth equipment is very costly and hard to place in all the places. The Bluetooth technologies are unstable and unsecure. iBeacon also little high cost and sense the data in short range of area.
In this paper, iBeacon-based indoor situating frameworks to advertise their items successfully for tremendous shopping centres are presented. It has benefits both Internet of Things and versatile web and accomplishes the objective of indoor situating inside malls (A. Ghose,2017). It has the upsides of low power utilization, quick reaction, and exact situating, accordingly conveying extraordinary accommodation to patients
White paper (EnhancingiBeacon, 2017) describes, beacons are using shortest path algorithm Floyd to sense the Bluetooth signal and provide more offers to the consumers.
1.2 Purpose of the Projects
Consider we are building an indoor positioning mobile application for a huge Retail Marketing shopping Mall to provide different offers to the consumers based on location (Sabella, 2013)
Many outdoor approaches (i.e.WIFI) do not work appropriately inside of the buildings because they need satellite support to track the items/devices. Hence I decided to create this application which will provide different offers, promotions, loyalty programs and Rewards etc. As well as we can market the product offers, Promotions via notification using iBeacon technology. Every beacon has UDID & separate MAJOR and MINOR value to sense the IOS mobile devices which are mapped to it.
The Ibeacon device has to be placed in the marketing area where exactly the retailer wants to market their products. The beacon operator will configure its UUID and its longitude and latitude values of that particular beacon into the Database server. (Note: Each and every beacon has its built-in UUID and its longitude and latitude values.). The UUID (Enhancing iBeacon,2017)mapped into the merchants and their offers.
User must have the ability to provide the required details to register them into the Effective marketing application for a shopping mall.
User must be able to login to the application if they are registered user and user must be able to view the offers. Offers must be classified into Merchant and Non-merchant offers. The entire user regardless of registration must have the ability to view the offers. But the users who have already registered to the application can only redeem the offers through bar code. Using the Bar code they can get into the shops and buy the items that they want.
User must have the ability to redeem the offers through the notification that has been generated to their IOS mobile, only if the users have been register to the application. The users who have not register to the application tries redeem the offers; they will be forced to register to the application.
Here is the Notification plays its role, assume the user is in the shopping mall where the beacon technology is configured and user has the application installed. The offer notifications will be sent to the users based upon the beacons longitude and latitude values. The beacon concept works like near medium and far from the beacon device placed in the shopping mall.
Notification needs pushed to the User location if the user crosses the exact area of the beacon device placed. If the user is registered user, they will get notification saying, hey User name, you have this offer in this particular section of this shop. Please make use of it and application should provide the link to redeem the voucher code if they want make use of the offer. User should be navigated to the offer information page with redeem button. If the user is registered to the application, Application will generate the voucher code on clicking the redeem button. If the users have not been registered to application, they will get warning message saying them to register to application to redeem the offers.
The special case of this application is regardless of sensors from BLE, if the user registered to application, they will be always listed with some merchant offers. Also, Notification will be sent to the user device in the below conditions,
- User just installed the application in their mobile
- Application running the back ground
- Application is opened and user uses the application
An application must provide the different offers on different time frames.
To elaborate this, I wanted to give an example scenario for this project as listed below,
Consider the user is in the huge and classic mall and Beacon device is configured with its major and minor values in the women’s section. Also all the offers and promotions were fed into the database.
Let us say, user is crossing the women’s section, Our beacon device will produce the proximity id (UUID) in kind of near, far and immediate distances. Mobile application detects the UUID along with major and minor values. These information will be send to the database server and the server will check the Promotions, Rewards data mapped to the UUID and pushes those promotions and rewards as offers as a notification. If the user opens the notification, User will be having the ability to hear the voice message of the notification.
1.3 Scope of the Project
IBeacon is a transmitting protocol that will identify the nearby hardware electronic devices and transmits a unique proximity id and its longitude and latitude to sense its nearby electronic devices (i.e. smart phones, tablets and other devices) to achieve their actions. Ibeacons are naturally named beacons which will clarify the functionality of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE).
In , An iOS device getting an iBeacon transmission can approximate the distance from the iBeacon. The distance (between transmitting iBeacon and receiving device) is considered into 3 distinct ranges.
- Immediate: Within a limited centimetre
- Near: Inside a couple of meters
- Far: Greater than 10 meters away
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a recently developed technology pursuing low-power, low-cost wireless communications within medium or short range. BLE has protracted the already wide acceptance of Bluetooth and is a perfect choice for a change of sensor-based products, as well as universal mobile devices. In recent times, it has been projected that indoor positioning can be attained when sprinkling BLE sensor devices (C. Gomez, 2016), called Beacons, in various places of a specific location. In this work, we present an Android-based application for investigating iBeacon networks and defining the finest gesture map. We also demonstrate the application of the presented analyser for measuring the radiation pattern of iBeacon devices
As described in (D.Giovanelli, 2015) Using iBeacon technology, we can advertise the product offers, Loyalty programs, rewards & other stuffs in our mobile application using push notification as well as voice messages. When the user opens the notification, Notification pushed as voice messages (which will be most useful for a blind person as well). We can build the application based on Mall’s applications. Also, we can create different offers for the users during the different time frames. NFC technology does not offer the range of potentials that Bluetooth does and iBeacons can be used to do approximately very comparable to what NFC does. When adjusted to be ranged within very short distances, iBeacons can be deployed to allow communication between stationary beacons and loyalty program applications. In a more advanced scenario, both the application and the stationary sensor can achieve passive (listener) and active (broadcaster) actions, allowing short-range, two-way communication between the application and the iBeacon sensor.
Universally Unique Identiﬁer(UUID):16Bytevalue used to differentiate an organization’s iBeacon from others. For a certain brand X, all its beacons would have the same UUID (Shinsuke Kajioka, 2014) hence assisting the mobile application to know about which network the beacons belong to.
Major value: 2 Byte value used for the speciﬁcation of any iBeacon within a group. For the brand X in the example above, the beacons deployed store in city Y will have the same major value (Shinsuke Kajioka, 2014). It is an optional ﬁeld and is not necessarily advertised in every advertisement.
Minor Value: 2 Byte value used for identiﬁcation of beacons (Shinsuke Kajioka, 2014). For the brand X above, in store Y, the beacon in a section say shoes section will have its own unique minor value. It is also an optional ﬁeld.
The iBeacon is indoor positioning equipment and this device equipped with low power Bluetooth (BLE) it performs as communication device by consuming BLE technology, every beacon has its own UUID (Shinsuke Kajioka, 2014) and its latitude, longitude values. The beacon will send the UUID to user device on different time frames; The Beacon operators will get UUID and its GEO values to provide the services to the shopping mall. Now a mobile device will perform some actions according to the UUID produced from the beacons. This low power Bluetooth technology, compared with the traditional one, has advantages of lower cost and lower power consumption, The Bluetooth LE protocol is expressively more power efficient than Bluetooth Classic. Several chipsets makers, including Texas Instruments and Nordic Semiconductor now fund chipsets enhanced for iBeacon use. Power consumption depends on iBeacon configuration parameters of advertising interval and transmits power. iBeacon battery life can range between 1–24 months (Jingling,2012). An iBeacon deployment consists of one or more iBeacon devices that transmit their own unique identification number to the local area. Software on a receiving device may then look up the iBeacon and perform various functions, such as notifying the user. Receiving devices can also connect to the iBeacons to retrieve values from iBeacon’s GATT (generic attribute profile) service (Jingling,2012). iBeacons do not push notifications to receiving devices (other than their own identity). However, mobile software can use signals received from iBeacons to trigger their own push notifications.
1.4 Projects Aim and Objectives
The main aim in this project is to develop a mobile application for business to business (B2B) and business to consumer(B2C). Firstly, this is a shopping malls mobile application. This to do marketing of retailer to customer and make customer to attach with the retailer. Hence, I decided to build and mobile application which can help retailer and customer. Through this application retailer can promote their products, give promotions and offers to customer. In additional retailer, also can make the customer attract to their products, promotions and offers and this application helps retailers to increased their sales.
Moreover, this application also aid retailer to collect customer data from this application. Besides that, this mobile application can make the customer to attach with the retailer. In additional, this application make customer helpful such as to get the promotions through notification from this mobile application. Therefore, this application also helps customer to save time. Furthermore, customer can use this application without internet but with Bluetooth connection. This application will make customer more interesting in way to get notification, promotions and offers through Bluetooth to their phone by our application using an iBeacon Bluetooth device which can detect our customer Bluetooth through their phones.
Secondly, an objective of this project also is about research on iBeacon which can help customer and retailers to receive and give. This iBeacon using of Bluetooth Low energy (BLE). On research iBeacon formed for a mobile application which can running on both device IOS and Android. This iBeacon can be used for transmitting data such as message, notifications and advertising. Therefore, this will make customer safe cost for internet. This device designed low energy consumption and cost.
Therefore, hence I decided to wrap up together the mobile application and with iBeacon (BLE). This is make low cost also to build the applications and for retailers to promote and advertising their products via Bluetooth. The strongest reason to use this beacon for this application it is a one-way communication method. On this application, the main role is to pull customer through the notification with this application by giving promotions.
Retailers will have a separate admin panel to push their promotion and offers. This system for retailers can updates anytime and anywhere. Therefore, retailers safe cost and time such away in spending time to promote the products in media, pamphlets and banners. In additional, retailers also can cut cost in hiring sales and marketing staff with using this shopping mobile application and iBeacon (BLE). This iBeacon Technology can be used for long-term and it life with dry cell battery.
Furthermore, iBeacon (BLE) can be called as transmitters. It has some fantastic features. For example, iBeacon as proximity which can detect near, far and immediate. The iBeacon have a common proximity identifier such as UUID, MAJOR values and MINOR values. iBeacon (BLE).
1.5 Problem Definition
How are we going to help retailers to market their products? Hence this paper presents an Ibeacon based on indoor positioning system for huge shopping malls. At first it will analyze the advantages of beacons compared to NFC and other indoor positioning systems. This beacon uses three-layer architecture of Internet of Things (H. Kopetz,2011) to have message-push-services (Jingling,2012). At last, these beacons use shortest distance algorithm Floyd to find the nearby sensors to sense the nearest BLE devices.
Now a day, mobiles phones are playing extensive and added value to every human’s life. People cannot live without smart phones and they want everything to be smarter and faster. To prove that, many applications on smart phones and mobile devices are giving exhaustive/surprising inputs and techniques to live lazy and crazy.
This project is a smartest way of marketing the products with attractive offers to the consumers through push notifications as well as in application view point in different business sectors. An IOT speaks here about the effective marketing using the sensor systems through the Bluetooth and Apple’s ibeacon which will sense the targeted content and find out what really a consumer needs. These beacons will identify the targeted content and performs the data analytics to provide different offers.
Hence, I decided to provide more accurate, cost efficient approach to indoor positioning of mobile application using ibeacon.
In these projects, I have use system development life cycle(SDLC). In many of the methodology I have decide to use Agile SDLC model which is blend of iterative and incremental process models with concentrate on process versatility and consumer loyalty by fast conveyance of working programming item. Agile method break the item into little incremental forms. These developments are given cycles. Each emphasis commonly keeps going from around one to three weeks. Each iteration includes cross useful groups working at the same time on different ranges likes planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, unit testing and acceptance testing.
Agile model must be handle differently and existing methods must be tailored to best suit projects requirement. It can be divided to time boxes to deliver specific features for a release.
Agile methodology has a flexible reason to use for development because it is revenue, means features are send incrementally and enabling some benefits to develop. Moreover, research said 80% of all market leaders were first to market in developing. Furthermore, a key principle of Agile development is that testing is integrated through the lifecycle with high quality and visibility.
Agile Methodology are being broadly acknowledge in the products world as of late. Nonetheless, this strategy may not generally be appropriate for all items. Here are a few advantages and disadvantages of the Agile model:
- Pros of Agile Model are as follow:
- Is an exceptionally sensible way to deal with programming advancement
- Advance collaboration and broadly educating.
- Asset prerequisites are least
- Reasonable for settled or changing prerequisites
- Great model for situations that change relentlessly.
- Easy to manage
- Gives flexibility to developers
- Cons of Agile Model are as follow:
- Not appropriate for dealing with complex conditions
- More danger of supportability, practicality and extensibility.
- Depends heavily on client’s communication, so if clients are not clear, group can be driven in the wrong direction.
- There is high individual reliance, since there is least documentation created.
2.1 What is Ibeacon?
iBeacon is a convention created by Apple and presented at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in 2013. (Cavallini, n.d.) Different merchants have since made iBeacon-good hardware transmitters – commonly called beacons – a class of Bluetooth low vitality (LE) gadgets that communicate their identifier to close-by versatile electronic gadgets. The innovation empowers cell phones, tablets and different gadgets to perform activities when in closeness to an iBeacon. (Cavallini, n.d.)
iBeacon utilizes Bluetooth low vitality vicinity detecting to transmit an all around one of a kind identifier grabbed by a good application or working framework. (Pointr Blog, 2017) The identifier and a few bytes sent with it can be utilized to decide the gadget’s physical area, track clients, or trigger an area construct activity in light of the gadget, for example, a registration via web-based networking media or a push warning. (Pointr Blog, 2017)
One application is conveying messages at a particular Point of Interest, for instance a store, a transport stop, a room or a more particular area like a household item or a candy machine. (Pointr Blog, 2017)This is like already utilized geo push innovation in view of GPS, however with a greatly lessened effect on battery life and highly broadened accuracy. (Pointr Blog, 2017)
Another application is an indoor situating framework, which helps cell phones decide their inexact area or setting. With the assistance of an iBeacon, a cell phone’s product can roughly locate its relative area to an iBeacon in a store. (Aislelabs, 2017)Physical retail locations utilize the beacons for versatile business, offering clients unique arrangements through portable showcasing, and can empower versatile installments through purpose of offer frameworks. (Aislelabs, 2017)
iBeacon varies from some other area based innovations as the telecom gadget (beacon) is just a 1-route transmitter to the getting cell phone or accepting gadget, and requires a particular application introduced on the gadget to associate with the beacons. (Aislelabs, 2017)This guarantees just the introduced application (not the iBeacon transmitter) can track clients, possibly without wanting to, as they latently stroll around the transmitters. (Aislelabs, 2017)
iBeacon perfect transmitters arrive in an assortment of frame variables, including little coin cell gadgets, USB sticks, and non specific Bluetooth 4.0 able USB dongles.
2.2 Type of iBeacon
Beacon is a small device, which is inexpensive gadgets that not able more exact location within a narrow coverage than GPS. Moreover, beacon is typically can be powered with AA2 batteries. Furthermore, there are few types beacon protocols on this research which Is state below:
- iBeacon is the first beacon protocol in the market
- It works with android and IOS
- It can transmit with UUID
- UUID has a string of 24 numbers
- Which can communicate with mobile App
- Eddystone rename to UriBeacon
- It also can be work with android and IOS
- It can be transmitting with 3 different type of frames
- URL – Which can deliver a data to device and eliminating needed applications.
- UID – It is like Apple UUID and It has a string with 16 digits’ characters and can installed to mobile App
- TLM – it has telemetry which can communicate to data and it can read battery level and temperature.
- It is an open source beacon
- It is a customize source code
- It can compatibility with another device.
Therefore, In this projects I have decided to use iBeacon as my research topic .Below shows the view and details of iBeacon.
2.3 iBeacon Bluetooth Low Energy Features
Beacon are built with the latest features and it is running with those features. Beacon also as many features which is state as below:
- Beacon can describe as cube size
- Size 2.5cm x 2.5cm
- Security (128 bit AES)
- Fast Battery Replacement
- Platform Support IOS and Android SDK
- It also has waterproof beacon
- Colors vary is white
- Chipset N51822 256KB
- MCU is ARM
- MEMORY (RAM) 16KB
- Bluetooth Range is 40m
- Weight 18g
- Bluetooth 4.0
2.4 iBeacon Positioning System
In research of this project iBeacon has two positioning system. Positioning is very important to a system were merge with application. iBeacon usually focus in indoor such as hospitals, malls, and underground level either lower floors. Beacon is an indoor positioning system gave by Apple in view of BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) innovation. (He et al., 2015) Savvy gadgets, for example, iPhone or Android telephone can recognize promoting signals sent by the low vitality utilization modest gadget. Warnings will be pushed naturally to the client when shrewd gadget with iBeacon Apps go to specific regions. (He et al., 2015) It gives promising and portfolio use situations for business, for example, retail locations, to push related data about clients’ intrigued things with the attention to clients’ area. This innovation likewise can be utilized as a part of historical center situation. In this examination, we portrayed the rule of iBeacon, and tended to a plan of cooperation framework amongst guests and accumulations bolstered by iBeacon innovation. (He et al., 2015)
Therefore, used in those places is to get the accurate location. There are few positioning system which is state below:
- Hybrid positioning system
- Indoor positioning system
- Real-Time locating System
- Outdoor positioning System
Therefore, in this system I have decided to play roll in indoor positioning system. Indoor positioning system (IPS) is like GPS for indoor environments and can be find individual or questions inside structure, ordinarily by means of device. Moreover, indoor positioning system are rapidly picking up footing in spots like shopping centers, hospitals and buildings. Through indoor positing system (IPS) play roll in my development system . iBeacon have to install inside the malls, for example image below:
- Sample case scenario which has been use in hospital.
How beacon help in hospital? patients discover their specialties or wards is an issue that should be comprehended by doctor’s facilities desperately. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015)This paper shows an iBeacon-based indoor situating framework for healing facilities. It right off the bat investigations the upsides of iBeacon contrasted and the normal indoor situating innovations; then plans the indoor situating framework for doctor’s facilities in light of the three-layer engineering of Internet of things to have message-push-benefit through customers. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) At long last, the briefest separation calculation Floyd is utilized to prescribe the closest division or ward to patients. Appeared as aftereffect of the test, indoor situating for clinics can be acknowledged by the framework. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015)
Despite the fact that there are floor dispersion maps and guide signs in outpatient office floors of most healing centers, numerous patients are as yet stressed over that they may invest much energy finding the office or ward when seeing a specialist. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) As of late, with the advancement of PC innovation and short-run remote correspondence innovation, the idea of shrewd prescription develops. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) Clever medication alludes to the utilization of the most developed innovation – Internet of things, to make conceivable connection between patients, restorative faculty, therapeutic establishments, and medicinal gear lastly to accomplish the informatization. We can give, through the propelled idea and innovation about astute medication, indoor situating for patients, along these lines enhancing their treatment encounter. At present, indoor situating innovation is progressively great. It is regularly utilized as a part of huge and medium-sized shopping centers and celebrated historical centers while once in a while utilized as a part of doctor’s facilities. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) Indoor situating is acknowledged through WLAN, Bluetooth or radio recurrence ID innovation. Remote neighborhood can understand the objective of situating, observing and following focus in a wide range. Self-area of system hubs is the premise and essential for generally applications. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) The Bluetooth innovation is to find protest by measuring the flag quality. It has a few benefits. The best one of them is the little volume of the gadget, which makes it less demanding to be incorporated in PDA, PC and cell phone. Accordingly its promotion is less demanding. Be that as it may, it has a few impediments. To start with, the gadgets and hardware of Bluetooth are costly. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015)Second, in the perplexing space condition, the Bluetooth framework is precarious and defenseless against be meddled by boisterous flag. Radio recurrence ID innovation is to utilize radio recurrence to accomplish the objective of acknowledgment and situating by non-contact two-way information correspondence. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015) From one perspective, it has points of interest of huge transmission run, ease and getting data about the area in a couple of milliseconds. Then again, it has the hindrances of short impact separation, and absence of the correspondence capacity. Plus, it is additionally hard to be incorporated into different frameworks. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015)
In this paper, iBeacon-based indoor situating frameworks for doctor’s facilities are presented. It has benefits of both Internet of things and portable web and accomplishes the objective of indoor situating inside healing facilities. It has the benefits of low power utilization, quick reaction, and exact situating, accordingly conveying extraordinary comfort to patients. (Yang, Wang and Zhang, 2015)
2.5 Enhancing iBeacon based Micro-Location with Particle Filtering
The coming of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) empowered Beacons is ready to alter the indoor logical mindful administrations to the clients. Because of the lower vitality utilization and higher throughput, BLE could in this way be a fundamental mainstay of an Internet of Things (IoT) Location Based Service (LBS). (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014) Following a client with high precision is known as Micro-Location. This is a prerequisite of numerous IoT client driven applications for indoor situations. Albeit a few advancements have been utilized for following purposes, the exactness has dependably been a significant issue. In the meantime, every merchant would introduce diverse innovations. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014) In this work,we propose to utilize the front line and economically accessible Apple’s iBeacon convention and iBeacon BLE sensors for smaller scale area. We propose to use a control theoretic approach, to be specific molecule ﬁltering, so as to expand the following precision in an indoor domain. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)We performed broad examinations and our outcomes demonstrate that the proposed beacon based smaller scale area framework can be utilized to find a client in an indoor domain with a blunder as low as 0.27 meters.
LBS are generally utilized as a part of various open air offices for route administrations. However giving exceedingly exact situating administrations in indoor/GPS obliged conditions is a testing errand because of the nearness of deterrents and the inborn complexities in an indoor domain. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)There are various diverse procedures that can be utilized for indoor situating, for example, Time Of Arrival (TOA), Return Time Of Flight (RTOF), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), RSS-based, Received Signal Phase Method, Angle of Arrival (AOA), Scene Analysis and Proximity calculations. RSSI based techniques have been utilized broadly in More speciﬁcally, Zigbee, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) and other comparative remote advances have been utilized to track the clients in indoor situations. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)
In any case, the issue with such conventions is that the get to focuses require consistent vitality, and the conventions have been outlined towards speedier get to as opposed to closeness based administrations. For decreasing the RSS record float, utilizes both Heron-bilateration area estimation and Kalman-ﬁlter float evacuation. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014) This diminishes the situating mistake and additionally calculation complex-it. Such an approach additionally causes a decline in the cost of sending a RFID based indoor following framework without risking the precision and granularity of confinement. A crossover indoor confinement estimation system that uses amplified Kalman ﬁlter is introduced in . (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014) The exhibited procedure incorporates ﬁngerprinting and trilateration bringing about a basic and strong approach for confinement. As opposed to changing over the estimation of RSSI into separation, the Euclidean separation equation is utilized. Conversely with, for enhancing the execution of the framework, we use molecule ﬁlters (PF) which have a tendency to perform superior to Kalman ﬁlters and Unscented Kalman Filters (UKF). (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)
Besides our model is computationally efﬁcient as it uses just molecule ﬁltering rather a com-bination of systems as done in for enhancing the exactness. At long last, we didn’t change any of the center engineering of the BLE stack as was finished with WLAN in. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)PF is likewise utilized as a part of for limitation utilizing the Radio Frequency Identiﬁcation (RFID) labels. The RFID framework works on Ultra High Frequency (UHF) and comprises of a standard RFID peruser, the aloof labels that fill in as the reference focuses. Restrictive planned semi-inactive tag are connected to the protest for following purposes. The semi-detached label utilizes backscatter balance for exchanging the detected data to the peruser. (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)While their setup was veriﬁed in a littler space, we utilized relatively broad arrangement of examinations to check the exactness of our model in a littler and similarly bigger space.
Our proposed framework accomplishes a precision as high as 0.27 meters which is higher than Magnetic Field Mapping (up to 2 meters), WLAN (3 meters), Zigbee (3 meters), GPS (for open air situations and 10 meters), and half and half of RF and IR or RF and Ultrasonic advancements (1 meters). (Zafari and Papapanagiotou, 2014)
2.6 Indoor Positioning Of Mobile Devices With Agile iBeacon
Position of cell phones and their clients gives an awesome measure of included esteem and openings. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)The infiltration of GPS beacons with tactile, for example, GPS gadgets, quickening agents and particularly advanced mobile phones have affected human lives widely. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)These days, numerous applications on advanced mobile phones and cell phones misuse diverse methods and contributions for situating. Remote situating is for the most part isolated into two classifications: open air situating and indoor situating, contingent upon where they are utilized as well as how they function. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)Effective as it seems to be, indoor setting is as yet a testing issue since satellite-based methodologies don’t work legitimately inside structures. In this way, for indoor situating, we have to utilize different innovations imaginatively.
IBeacon, the concentration of this paper, is another innovation which gives a more elevated amount of area mindfulness in indoor situating. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)IBeacon is an implicit, cross-stage innovation for Android and iOS gadgets, which uses Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) for long-last administrations. This innovation has critical favorable circumstances contrasted with different sorts of indoor situating advancements, for example, more affordable hardware, less vitality utilization, unnecessary to web association, and being equipped for accepting notices in foundation. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)This innovation will give gigantic advantages to future area mindfulness applications. It will change the way retailers, occasion coordinators, and instructive establishments speak with individuals inside. In this paper, we intend to give a more exact, cost effective way to deal with indoor situating of cell phones utilizing ibeacon. (Fard, Chen and Son, 2015)
2.7 Does iBeacon will change the future of shopping?
On research, Article said iBeacon transmitters for microscopes will bring the following amount of retails sales. (Gilpin, 2014) Apple iBeacon, a propelled area transmitter can possibility reform the retailer experiences through incorporating signals for arrangements and useful instalments for customer and giving huge information investigation to organization. (Gilpin, 2014) Moreover, Apple is incorporating iBeacon hooked on retail stores. It will be works with application which is presented for download and detect consumers once they arrive the store. (Gilpin, 2014) In additional, it use full for companies such way companies want iBeacon on behalf of the big data. For example, business and retailers nowadays consume a shortest method toward find out whatever shopper are doing and can identify accurately someplace in the retails. Consider of the opportunity for big data now consumes a corporation be able to locate out your micro location. (Gilpin, 2014) Therefore, in that way they can send to customer personalized messages and arrangements once customer arrive the stores so customer will have a better idea of what toy purchase. (Gilpin, 2014)Moreover, iBeacon also offers shoppers a more updated involvement. Finally, there are natural privacy concerns with iBeacon.
2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of iBeacon.
- iBeacon also has an advantages features. Which is script below:
- Lower costs
- The expenses of executing this innovation is only half of its rivals like Near Field Communication(NFC). (Wu et al., 2017)
- The iBeacon can be utilized to buy items straight from shopper’s mobile devices. (Wu et al., 2017)
- It saves customers opportunity and it enables more exchanges to happen which has ability to lift income for the organization.
- Better relationships
- iBeacon also can help troughs make a more stable association with clients as they are reliably being told about the items they are occupied with at a specific store. (Wu et al., 2017)
- It can extremely accurate indoors.
- iBeacon also has a disadvantages features. Which is script below:
- Signal are Easy to duplicate
- It allow to deploy the same beacon at multiple sites (Wu et al., 2017)
- Cannot fast detect
- It cannot detect on fast movement devices
3.REVIEW OF EXISTING SYSTEM
3.1 Existing and Proposed System
We have lot of technologies to compare with Ibeacons here. We have push notifications in all the departments in today’s worlds. (Babu, 2015)For everything we need internet of things and WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) as an indoor positioning system. Moreover, we have the following indoor positioning systems:
- NFC (Near Field Communication) which is same as Ibeacon. But Differs from the range and the distance of the sensor system. (Babu, 2015) It is a short range high frequency wireless communication Technology. NFC used to transfer the data between devices what exactly beacon does. (Babu, 2015)The only difference is we can transfer the data only till 10Cm through NFC. But Beacons will transfer its signals till 500 Meters. (Babu, 2015)
- NFC technology does not offer the range of possibilities that Bluetooth does and iBeacons can be used to do something very similar to what NFC does. (Babu, 2015)
- Even though NFC enabled in the mobile and the user going to NFC tagged shopping Mall, they have offer on their product. (Babu, 2015) NFC intimates the users on the availability of the offer. But Beacon sends notifications to get their offers as loyalty points.
- NFC has one-to-one user experience. Whereas Beacons has one-to-many user experiences. (Babu, 2015)
As I explained above, we have lot of indoor positioning software to provide their marketing; they are having loads of limitations init. (Babu, 2015)Hence, I suggested beacon technology to this project, because these beacons will transfer the data in low energy Bluetooth (BLE), less cost and more accurate values.
3.2 Evaluation of Existing Equipment
In present, advertising equipment which were usually adopted into few separated types:
- Newspaper Advertising
Newspaper advertising or promotion are promoting into business to a broad customer base. (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017)The display advertisement is all set up by the paper, which is under the heading of the specific section. Nowadays stranger are less buying paper and have consider it (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017)
- Magazine Advertising
Magazine can achieve market objective rapidly and effortlessly. Readers tend to read magazine at their relation and keep them for more giving promotion in multiple chances to attract attention. (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017)
- Catalogues and pamphlets Advertising
Catalogues and pamphlets can likewise be circulated into objective zone. (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017) Including brochures with the post office based mail is an awesome approach to give an intrigued client more data about the promotions and products (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017)
- Support Media Advertising
Support media can be called as bolster media incorporate a few choices for messages conveyance than typically add to grow battles carried through more customary media. (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017) Announcements, travels, transport seats, flying, and exchange distributions are regular support media. Each of which has advantages and disadvantages but overall, they provide a way to reach a wider range of neighbors or onlookers in the local market or focus on the main market segments. (Business.qld.gov.au, 2017)
3.3 Comparison of Similar System
In this researches, there are some application are using iBeacon to push their push notification message and promote their product to consumer in mobile devices. Therefore, I found a application in Malaysia which is similar to my system is named as “Manis” develop by a company named as Ebizu Sdn Bhd and locate in Kuala Lumpur. This Manis application is a universal loyalty points programs. This is a life style mobile application that empowers customer to earn and send points at all your favourite business. This application also can track to spend by snapping your receipts and uploading receipts, snap and earn point to rewards for free stuff and redemption. Besides that, Manis application have few program and activity to customer such as snapping receipts and earn points. (FAQ With Manis, 2016)The main aim of snapping receipts is to automagically track customer spending. In some other way it can be said customer also can track their expenses and avoid to miss out the receipts form the wallet. (FAQ With Manis, 2016)By using this concept retails also can track their location. Besides that, they do have earning points and collect point through the receipts. Other than that they might have 2 benefits which is referral points and redemption. User can also have free point if they introduce to new user and can redemption with the collected point to get discounts, offers or promotions and vouchers. (FAQ With Manis, 2016)
Apart from that there is another concept which is the most similar function to my system which is push notification message such as promotion message and advertising message through iBeacon with Internet connection. (Getmanis.com, 2016)This notification function also helps retails to send information and customer to received messages via Bluetooth. This application only will be received notification message if user turn on the device Bluetooth. This will pull customer attention to the stores. (Getmanis.com, 2016) In scenario, if customer passing by the stores entrance with on Bluetooth the beacon will push notification to device. Furthermore, this application also provides digital retail solution. It can be effective this application make customer attach with the retailer. (Getmanis.com, 2016) Target of this Manis application is to helping small and medium business, hypermarket and malls. Solution intended is to help the manage and grow their business using affordable cloud and mobile technology. (Getmanis.com, 2016) Besides that, in this Manis application there is an cons issues which is if the user doesn’t have internet connection they won’t received and the iBeacon won’t push the notification message. (Getmanis.com, 2016)
3.4 Interface of Existing System
Logo of Manis Application
Interface of Earn Points Collected
Overview of Interface
Mobile device view of Manis Application
The system is with is a loyalty program. But the main disadvantage here is that the push system only works when there is a connection of wifi, data roaming. It also has its own database of the users by each profile that is unique and does not overlap other users. It earns and stores each users database individually with the uniqueness attached. Through this I came up with a new system which is enhanced by the connectivity whereby in my system I have used Bluetooth enhanced system. My connectivity is all on Bluetooth, I choose this decision as all smart phones now compulsory cones with a Bluetooth connection.
4.SYSTEM REQUIREMENT AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Feasibility Study
IBeacon is an Apple technology and this technology just consists of iBeacon transmitter which is small and low-powered Bluetooth aerial, providing the details and its name to anyone who asks. (Estel and Fischer, 2017) The actual tracking is done in software on the customer’s phone which, works out its location, if iBeacon #1 is 20m away, iBeacon #2 is 5m away, and iBeacon #3 is 50m away, then the customer must be in confusion where to go, but on the same point he can locate the nearest shop. (Estel and Fischer, 2017)
While Apple’s iOS 7 has the required abilities to do this built into the operating system, any Android phone with Bluetooth and Android 4.3 or above can pick up the same signals. (Estel and Fischer, 2017) People resemble this technology to NFC, but NFC has the range of just centimeters, may be 20 centimeter that’s it, and requires special hardware in the phone to get working. (Estel and Fischer, 2017)
4.2 Development Model
The improvement system decided for this venture is “Agile” since every one of the prerequisites are accumulated as of now and is accessible. Since the focused on end date is accessible we can get ready for each stage to meet the due date. (COHEN, LINDVALL and COSTA, 2004)
Agile SDLC model is a blend of iterative and incremental process models with concentrate on process versatility and consumer loyalty by fast conveyance of working programming item. (COHEN, LINDVALL and COSTA, 2004)
Agile Methods break the item into little incremental forms. These fabricates are given in iteration. Every cycle regularly endures from around one to three weeks. (COHEN, LINDVALL and COSTA, 2004) Each emphasis includes cross utilitarian groups working all the while on different territories like arranging, necessities investigation, plan, coding, unit testing, and acknowledgment testing. (COHEN, LINDVALL and COSTA, 2004)
Toward the finish of the cycle a working item is shown to the client and imperative partners.
Agile model trusts that each venture should be taken care of distinctively and the current methods should be customized to best suit the venture necessities. (Koch, 2011) In agile the undertakings are isolated to time boxes (little time allotments) to convey particular components for a discharge. (Koch, 2011)
Iterative approach is taken and working programming construct is conveyed after every cycle. Each form is incremental as far as components; the last form holds every one of the elements required by the client. (Koch, 2011)
Agile manner of thinking had begun right on time in the product advancement and began getting to be plainly well known with time because of its adaptability and flexibility. (Koch, 2011)
The most popular agile methods include Rational Unified Process (1994), Scrum (1995), Crystal Clear, Extreme Programming (1996), Adaptive Software Development, Feature Driven Development, and Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) (1995). These are now collectively referred to as agile methodologies, after the Agile Manifesto was published in 2001. (Koch, 2011)
Following are the Agile Manifesto principles
People and cooperations – in agile advancement, self-association and inspiration are vital, as are connections like co-area and match programming. (Koch, 2011)
Working programming – Demo working programming is viewed as the best methods for correspondence with the client to comprehend their prerequisite, rather than simply relying upon documentation. (Koch, 2011)
Client joint effort – As the prerequisites can’t be accumulated totally in the start of the venture because of different elements, constant client cooperation is imperative to get legitimate item necessities. (Koch, 2011)
Reacting to change – agile advancement is centered around fast reactions to change and persistent improvement. (Koch, 2011)
Agile Vs Traditional SDLC Models
Agile depends on the versatile programming improvement methods where as the conventional SDLC models like waterfall model depends on prescient approach. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013)
Prescient groups in the customary SDLC models for the most part work with definite arranging and have an entire gauge of the correct assignments and elements to be conveyed in the following couple of months or amid the item life cycle. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013) Prescient methods completely rely on upon the prerequisite investigation and arranging done in the start of cycle. Any progressions to be consolidated experience a strict change control administration and prioritization. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013)
Agile utilizations versatile approach where there is no point by point arranging and there is lucidity on future errands just in regard of what elements should be developed. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013) There is highlight driven advancement and the group adjusts to the changing item necessities progressively. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013) The item is tried as often as possible, through the discharge iterations, limiting the danger of any real disappointments in future. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013)
Client connection is the foundation of Agile technique, and open correspondence with least documentation are the common components of Agile advancement condition. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013) The agile groups work in close cooperation with each other and are regularly situated in the same geological area. (STOICA, MIRCEA and GHILIC, 2013)
Agile Model Pros and Cons
Agile methods are by and large broadly acknowledged in the product world as of late, nonetheless, this technique may not generally be appropriate for all items. Here are a few advantages and disadvantages of the agile model. (Petersen and Wohlin, 2004)
- Is an exceptionally sensible way to deal with programming advancement
- Promotes cooperation and broadly educating.
Functionality can be created quickly and illustrated.
Resource prerequisites are least.
Suitable for settled or changing prerequisites
Delivers early incomplete working arrangements.
Good model for conditions that change relentlessly.
Minimal rules, documentation effectively utilized.
Enables simultaneous improvement and conveyance inside a general arranged setting.
Little or no arranging required
Easy to oversee
Gives adaptability to engineers
4.3 Functional Requirement
- User must have a capacity to enroll their data’s into keen shoppie application when the introduce the application into their IOS gadget
- User must have a choice to sign to the application in the event that they are as of now enlisted clients.
- There ought to be grouping made between dealer offers and non-vendor offers
- User must have the capacity to see the accompanying choices in the landing page of the application:
- Edit profile
- Non-Merchant Offers
- Merchant offers
- User must have an alternative to alter their profile whenever from their home screen of the application (Petersen and Wohlin, 2004)
- User must have the capacity to open and view non-trader offers. Be that as it may, they ought not have an alternative to recover those offers. (Petersen and Wohlin, 2004)
- User must have the capacity to open and view trader offers. Yet, they ought to have a choice to recover those offers
- User must ready to wipe out their reclaim procedure.
- System must tell the clients paying little heed to vendor and non-shipper offers and these notices ought to be shown in inbox.
- User ought to have a capacity to open the notice and they ought to have an alternative to reclaim the offer
- User ought to be compelled to enlist into the application when they attempt to recover the offers where they are not enrolled clients for this application.
4.4 Non-Functional Requirement
Performance of the Shoppiefie Application:
The performance of smart shoppie application can be classified in the below way,
- Immediate: if the user very near to beacon which means they are staying with in the centimeters limit of distance then the response time for sending notification on the campaigns(offers) will be very high. It can be measured in milliseconds.
- Near: if the user very near to beacon which means they are staying with in the meters limit of distance then the response time for sending notification on the campaigns(offers) will be very high. It can be measured in seconds.
- Far: if the user very near to beacon which means they are staying with in the meters limit of distance then the response time for sending notification on the campaigns(offers) will be very high. It can be measured in seconds.
Nowadays shopping environments are improving their strategy in many of the ways. Likewise, this Shoppiefie application will be more useful for user as well retailers. It will be easy to use for everyone and more reliable.
- OS: IOS – Mobile technology
- SDK: Xcode 7.1.1
- DB: SQLite
- Web services: JSON using PHP API.
- Framework: IOS- Bluetooth Framework.
- IOS device
- IBeacon hardware: Every IBeacons hardware will produce its own proximity id (UUID
4.5 Modules and Module Description
The Effective marketing application can be classified into below modules:
User must have an ability to Login/register to the application.Once the user installed an Shop-on application, User will be having an optional option to register to the application. On registration, user should have an ability to provide the below details,
Name : Name of the user
Phone Number: Phone number should be 10 digit numbers. It should accept only numeric values.
E-Mail: E-Mail id should have valid format.
Our Shop-on application will have register and cancel Button in the registration page.
- List of merchant offers:
List merchant offers will be displayed in the offer page. We may assume this as home page as well
- Detailed information of merchant offers:
User will be having an option to do the following in this module:
- View offer – User can view the offer
- Redeem offer – User can make use the offer by producing barcode to their mobile.
Notifications will be sent as a push message
- Active Application mode: If the user is registered user and he/she has opened the application, they will be able to view and redeem the offers.
Also, they will receive non- merchant offers as well if they are in the wide range of BLE device
- Back ground running application mode: If the user is registered/Non- registered user and he/she has opened the application. It is running in the back ground, they will be able to view and they can redeem the offers. Also, they will receive non- merchant offers as well if they are in the wide range of BLE device
- Termination (closed, but installed) mode: If the user is registered/Non- registered user and he/she hasn’t opened the application. It is not running in the back ground, they will be able to view and they cannot redeem the offers. Also, they will receive non- merchant offers as well if they are in the wide range of BLE device
4.6 Standards to use
IOS Application Standards
- FN-P1 – App requests only the absolute minimum permissions that it needs to support core functionality.
- FN-P2 – App does not request permissions to access sensitive data or services that can cost the user money, unless related to a core capability of the app.
- FN-U1 – App supports both landscape and portrait orientations.
- FN-U2 – App uses the whole screen in both orientations and does not letterbox to account for orientation changes.
- FN-U3 – App correctly handles rapid transitions between display orientations without rendering problems
- FN-S1 – App should not leave any services running when the app is in the background, unless related to a core capability of the app.
- FN-S2 – App correctly preserves and restores user or app state.
- PS-S1 – App does not crash, force close, freeze, or otherwise function abnormally on any targeted device.
- PS-P1 – App loads quickly or provides onscreen feedback to the user (a progress indicator or similar cue) if the app takes longer than two seconds to load.
- PS-V1 – App displays graphics, text, images, and other UI elements without noticeable distortion, blurring, or pixilation.
- PS-V2 – App displays text and text blocks in an acceptable manner.
IOS UI Standards
- UX-B1 – App takes after IOS Design rules and uses regular UI examples and symbols
- UX-N1 – App bolsters standard framework Back catch route and does not make utilization of any custom, on-screen “Back catch” prompts.
- UX-N2 – All discoursed are dismissible utilizing the Back catch.
- UX-N3 – Pressing the Home catch anytime explores to the Home screen of the gadget.
- UX-S1 – Notifications take after IOS Design rules.
- UX-S2 – App utilizes warnings just to show an adjustment in setting identifying with the client by and by
The UI elements provided by UIKit fall into four broad categories:
- Bars. Bars contain relevant data that tells clients where they are and controls that help clients explore or start activities.
- Content views. Content perspectives contain application particular substance and can empower practices, for example, looking over, inclusion, cancellation, and revision of things.
- Controls. Controls perform activities or show data.
- Temporary views. Transitory perspectives show up quickly to give clients imperative data or extra decisions and usefulness.
Notwithstanding characterizing UI components, UIKit characterizes objects that actualize usefulness, for example, signal acknowledgment, drawing, availability, and printing support.
There are three main styles of navigation, each of which is well suited to a specific app structure:
- Content- or experience-driven
4.7 Gantt Chart
5.1 Overall System Architecture
The iBeacon-based indoor positioning systems for the shopping mall was designed based on three-layer architecture of Internet of things , as shown in Figure 3.2.
The network layer: A high-performance router was selected as hardware bearing, because direct communication between server and client, such as mobile phone and tablet is done through the indoor Wi-Fi, 3G, or 4G.
The perceptual layer: First iBeacon was configured. Then, iBeacon’s ID and the area where it traces were put into database server by technical staff and iBeacon was set in a certain location. When a user enters this place, iBeacon will automatically send the specified information to the client, and the client forward it to the server. The server controls the location of the user according to information from the pre-configured iBeacon, and then sends the information processed back to the client.
Application layer: It contains server and client. Server is responsible for processing information, while client is responsible for interacting with users. The client should be designed to meet the requirement of humanity. 
5.2 Module Design
- Use case Diagram:
- Activity Diagram
3.3 Database Design
Here the data flow diagram explains about data flow for effective marketing between the client and server (local database) . The master data has been created for merchant offers and login registration, based on the login details system will fetch the list of offers and pushes the notification.
6.SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING
drawbacks setbacks problems time strain
8.RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
The results reveal that in-store beacon marketing campaigns are having a dramatic impact on shopper behavior and are poised to demonstrate meaningful business results for retailers this holiday season.
Shoppers are engaging with and acting on beacon marketing campaigns in stores
• 60 percent of shoppers open and engage with beacon-triggered content
• 30 percent of shoppers redeem beacon-triggered offers at the point of purchase
Beacon marketing campaigns are influencing shopper behavior
• 73 percent of shoppers surveyed said that beacon-triggered content and offers increased their likelihood to purchase during their store visit
• 61 percent said they would do more holiday shopping at stores that delivered mobile content and offers while they shop
• 61 percent said they would visit a store with beacon marketing campaigns more often
• 60 percent said they would buy more as a result of receiving beacon-triggered marketing messages
9.CONLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
server database future
Developer.apple.com. (2017). About Objective-C. [online] Available at: https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/ProgrammingWithObjectiveC/Introduction/Introduction.html [Accessed 10 Jan. 2017].
Help.apple.com. (2017). [online] Available at: https://help.apple.com/xcode/mac/8.0/ [Accessed 9 Feb. 2017].
Babu, P. (2015). Beacons vs NFC – Which Payment Technology Should Your Business Use?. [Blog] Beaconstac. Available at: https://blog.beaconstac.com/2015/12/beacons-vs-nfc-which-payment-technology-should-your-business-use/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].
Pointr Blog. (2017). Beacons: Everything you need to know. – Pointr Blog. [online] Available at: http://www.pointrlabs.com/blog/beacons-everything-you-need-to-know/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2017].
Cavallini, A. (n.d.). iBeacons Bible 1.0. 1st ed. [ebook] Gaia-Matrix, pp.6-9. Available at: https://meetingofideas.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/ibeacons-bible-1-0.pdf [Accessed 9 Feb. 2017].
FAQ With Manis. (2016). [Blog] Manis. Available at: https://www.getmanis.com/blog/?p=1075 [Accessed 10 Feb. 2017].
Fard, H., Chen, Y. and Son, K. (2015). Indoor positioning of mobile devices with agile iBeacon deployment. 2015 IEEE 28th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE).
NFC Bootcamp. (2017). Future of Mobile Retail Marketing: iBeacon AND NFC?. [online] Available at: http://www.nfcbootcamp.com/ibeacon-and-nfc-near-field-communication/ [Accessed 23 Apr. 2017].
He, Z., Cui, B., Zhou, W. and Yokoi, S. (2015). A proposal of interaction system between visitor and collection in museum hall by iBeacon. 2015 10th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE).
Getmanis.com. (2016). Manis – Your Universal Loyalty Points. [online] Available at: https://www.getmanis.com/ [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017].
Sabella, R. (2017). Future of Mobile Retail Marketing: iBeacon AND NFC?. [online] NFC Bootcamp. Available at: http://www.nfcbootcamp.com/ibeacon-and-nfc-near-field-communication/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2017].
Aislelabs. (2017). The Hitchhikers Guide to iBeacon Hardware: A Comprehensive Report by Aislelabs (2015) – Aislelabs. [online] Available at: http://www.aislelabs.com/reports/beacon-guide/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2017].
Business.qld.gov.au. (2017). Types of advertising | Business Queensland. [online] Available at: https://www.business.qld.gov.au/running-business/marketing-sales/marketing-promotion/advertising/types [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017].
Wu, K., Ma, L., Kahlon, G. and Buttar, G. (2017). Disadvantages. [online] Apple iBeacon. Available at: http://appleibeacon.weebly.com/disadvantages.html [Accessed 23 Feb. 2017].
Infoq.com. (2017). Xcode > Research > Page #1. [online] Available at: https://www.infoq.com/Xcode/research/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2017].
Yang, J., Wang, Z. and Zhang, X. (2015). An iBeacon-based Indoor Positioning Systems for Hospitals. International Journal of Smart Home, [online] 9(7), pp.161-168. Available at: http://www.sersc.org/journals/IJSH/vol9_no7_2015/16.pdf [Accessed 12 Jan. 2017].
Zafari, F. and Papapanagiotou, I. (2014). Enhancing iBeacon Based Micro-Location with Particle Filtering. 2015 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM).