All sectors of the economy play an important role in making a stable and long running development. Tourism is one of the sectors which plays an important role in development and also generates foreign revenues. This sector is peaceful and reflects the nature and beauty of the country. It helps people of far flung areas to promote their culture and norms, it also provide opportunity to country to make a better image around the world. There are many issues this sector is facing nowadays and the popularity of this sector is sliding down day by day means that people is not ready to make tours because of many problems and threats to security and life.
Several studies and researches have been conducted on this tourism and its relation to development of economy and also that how can we promote this sector? How can we create better image to world and also what measures we can use to maximize the development?
Michael Hitchcock (2004) had explained that tourism and culture have a deep relation. Culture is based on originality, authority, authenticity and many more. Tourists are attracted by such types of factors, he says that invest and reinvest is not modernization and it’s the human culture that remain there for a long time. Tradition is invested and process goes on its known as constructivist. Cultural transmission is not an authentic option, reproduction is not renew it have its own originality. We should make a clear difference in between the reproduction and originality. In order to save the cultural heritage and to attract tourists he says that culture should bi neat and original.
Mohamed Tangi (1977) had conducted a research that Mediterranean handles one-third of world tourism that has damaged the environment of that region due to many factors. He says that Greece, Spain, Cyprus these countries are visited more and the environment is quite hurt for dense tourism to these areas. The natural sites are reduced due to excessive construction for tourists and visitors. Tourism and environment are two parallels that move together, tourism mainly depends on environment along other factors, world is facing huge and fast rising in pollution as more tourism is rising in world. Environment can be man-made, natural or cultural in nature, all have effects on tourism and vice versa, cultural environment includes art, religion and human relations, which can be effected or disturbed by tourism. The countries which are rich in these factors can attract more tourists to their region; tourists may introduce new ways or styles to the places, which can be waste or injurious to the visited destination. He explained few alternative strategies or development policies to promote tourism to the region. It includes the land use planning, expand and construct islands, holidays and pricing policy, facilities to tourists, anti-pollution and policies, training and information to locals, rules and codes of conduct. Using these and promoting these strategies country can raise its tourism level and also promote development in the region. Tourism will be based on co-operation and planning in the future world, united nation environmental program and world tourism organization both are working and have to play an active role in tourism promotion and protection.
Barry Liddle (1989) had explained that tourism is helpful for local government to have a better economy and development. Presently it is the leading sector of the world and it will be stronger in future. Tourism can be of many types i.e. for leisure, work and business or for any purpose. Here industrial tourism is important type of tourism that can generate much information and knowledge. It further has an option that modern industrial tourism means that companies choose a day and at that day they arrange a proper tour to their company or exhibition. They also provide the full tourist’s facilities to visitors, so to make them feel comfortable. The industrial tours can be updated to local and national level to boost the economy, audit, local, central government and different councils should step in to make this type of tourism better and popular.
Erik Cohen (1984) had made a research that there are not much empirical studies in tourism economy, so this is required as we are moving into new and fast world. There are four main principles in tourism i.e. tourist that based upon his motivations, attitudes, role and reaction in response to other’s actions, the ideas, thinking and relationship of the locals and tourist matters in this sector, the structure and infrastructure of tourism system is an important part that can help it to flourish, the better the system the better will be the outcomes and economic and social impact from tourism to visited destinations. Tourism is based on culture that helps this industry to develop and become a helping hand to economy. More empirical study is needed to merge it with theory and provide world more information about this sector in a systematic way.
Amanda Stonza (2001) has explained in the article that tourism is mainly divided into two parts i.e. origins of tourism and impacts of tourism and the main problem is that tourism origins is only concerned with tourists and foreigners, while the impacts are only related to local public. The two halves provide different meaning and together they also only provide partial meanings not full, so origins of tourism should include the local public that how they can attract tourists? How they can promote the tourism in their region? Same is the case with the impacts of tourism; it should include the tourists who are willing to visit the particular places in world. What are the changes that have occurred in tourist after the trip? Origins and impacts both should be positive then the country’s social, cultural and economical conditions will be develop and their tourism sector will grow in a positive manner.
Janette Deacon (2006) explains tourism as an important sector of economy and also throws light on not so important type of tourism i.e. rock art conversation. This type of tourism is known as cultural or heritage tourism, cultural or heritage sites are main reasons behind the tourism in most Asian nations like China, India, Pakistan and SriLanka. Rock art conversation is famous in African nations, this tourism is in Africa but it’s not on large scale. Many ways are discussed to promote rock art conversation tourism so we can save it for vanishing from world. Factors that promote all types of tourism including this rock art conversation is training, skills, education guidelines, security, interests, attractions and many more. These factors will help tourism economy to expand that can create a better image of country’s tourism sector around the globe. International council on monuments and sites and international cultural tourism charter are two major sources to save and promote rock art conversation in tourism sector.
Agha Iqrar Haroon (2002) had explained that sustainable tourism can be achieved by working together with the local public sites that can be visited. Ecotourism in Pakistan is not working in a proper manner and Pakistan is not even near to sustainable tourism. In the northern areas 70% of economy is in hands of big businessmen that belong to other provinces and only 30% are in hands of local public. This local public has to survive on daily basis wages and all this is due to big businessmen have share of 70% from revenues and they also have support of tourism companies and government either local or federal. Local public is ignored in framing the policies and sharing the generated revenues, the big businessmen can provide imported facilities to foreigners that the locals are failed to do so. These acts have a negative impact on the employment and on living and earnings of local public of those northerner areas, so government should take few daring steps to save the public from exploitation from these wealthy investors. Government can invest in these areas, can ensure participation , secure future of local public, share more revenues to locals, heavy tax should be imposed on wealthy businessmen, irrelevant construction should be discouraged, local goods should be used that will generate profits and employment in region, training and guidance to public of concerned area. By doing all these actions our northern areas can be a top place to visit and Pakistan can achieve a sustainable and healthy development in tourism sector.
Dean Maccannell (2002) says that tourism is faster growing sector and it has relations to the non-economic factors. Ego factor counts a lot in tourism that personal behavior about tourism and travel, tourism is dependent on the classical and touristy experimental commodity. Ownership and attraction are non-economic factors in tourism or travel, tourism can promote opportunity, preservation and care of cultural heritage will promote tourism and theses are the main factors along the other factors that help to make a stable growth in this fast expanding sector. In short the human ego and the attractions to tourist sites are important factor for development of tourism economy of any country.
Yoel Mansfeld (1994) conducted a survey on the tourism in Middle East and what are the major factors that have reduced the tourism to the region of world? In 1980’s average growth rate of world for tourism is 6.2% and for Middle East it is 5.9% approx. Turkey and Greece also suffers from the conflict in Middle East between Israel and Palestine. Author also explains that international tourism is main source for developing countries to generate revenues, boost economy, creates jobs and much more. All these things will help them develop and achieve stability. Security situation has a huge impact on tourism around the globe and especially in Middle East that how much Israel suffered? How much other Arab and non-Arab nations have to face decline in their tourism? War or conflict between the Arabs and Israel is major threat to tourism in Middle East. Spill over effects are major in world tourism that if one country suffers from security threats her neighbor will also have to face the consequences being a neighbor. Spill over effects will determine their market strategies it means that how well you handle the pressure which is upon you due to disturbance in your neighbor country to save tourism industry of your country? Nowadays terrorism is main threat to world and especially in Middle East as the war is on in that region. So world have to sit together to find a safe and easy solution to this security threats and terrorism to save the tourism industry.
Peter Murphy et al. (1989) along with his partner conducted a research that tourism is indirectly related to natural disasters, but this combination is rarely seen in world. Recently the two such cases are occurred one at Mount St. Helen eruptions in 1980 and the second is East Kootenay forest fires in 1985. These two areas are hit by natural calamity and that also effects the tourism ratio in these regions. In first case 30% decline is showed and in second case millions of dollars loss is shown. Along the natural calamity the man-made disasters also are common in world i.e. terrorism and other security threats to world tourism, the event of hijacking of Achille Lauro in 1985 have effected the tourism in Mediterranean region. Disaster planning have for main stages i.e. assessment, warning, impact and recovery, impact and recovery are two main stages that have more effects on tourism. Media coverage plays an important role that how media will post image to world? If the coverage is positive then recovery will be faster and if the coverage is negative then problem grows double and tourism will be badly disturbed. So nation should always be prepare for disasters and disaster management authorities should be at standby to handle the problem and also can save tourism industry.
Eric Neumayer (2004) used the fix effects panel estimators and dynamic generalized method in this research on small sample size of countries to find the effects of tourism. His main focus is on political violence and other acts that can effect the tourism economy. Tourists always look and prefer the safe sites for tour and they are not ready to take risk for enjoyment. Democratic regimes are more successful in handling the violence pressure and autocratic regimes are not able to cope with the violence that can harm tourism sector. Hall (2004) says that political stability and safety are prerequisites for a healthy tourism in country, the world faced a downstream in tourism economy since 2000-01 and developing countries are more effected, whereas Europe and U.S.A is still the most visited place in world. Terrorism in Greece, Turkey and conflict in between Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and others have a negative impact on tourism. Other nations of the region is also effected by the disturbance in region, they are facing a decline in tourism sector. As told above that developing nations are more hurt from this political violence and security threats to tourism sector, it took them years to correct their image in front of world. Huge loss in foreign revenues and decline in their gross domestic product is hurting them badly. So few steps are requires to save this peaceful sector from violence and disturbance.
Dinah Payne et al. (1996) creates an ethical model for tourism industry that it is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world; it contributes much to GDP of country. Local community and environment is mostly kept outside from planning and management around the world. Local public should be included in the decision making and then it will helpful to all other factors in the tourism industry i.e. justice, integrity, competence and utility are the four main pillars that can help to create codes of ethics. Ethics is required in tourism sector to make it move at smooth pace and this is basic factor that is helpful in tourism. Research shows the absence of ethics from the tourism industry, environment, community tourists and employees are the main factors that are required to enhance them more in tourism sector. The more will be the ethics the more will be the public and tourists interaction. Few suggestions are that local public should not be ignored, they should be more hospitable to tourists, they must save environment from destruction and list goes on. Codes should be followed in nice manner and that will be beneficial for the public and to tourism sector of country. So this ethics is much needed factor today in tourism industry to make it more attractive and peaceful.