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System Engineering: Amphibious Car

1 Statement of work

In 20th century, system engineering has been developed for human beings in order satisfy their needs in transportation services by implementing multipurpose vehicle. The aim of inventing amphibious automobile is to travel on the road as well as operate in water as water vehicle.

The objective of our team is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle which can compete Richard Branson’s record set in the Gibbs Aquada implemented on 2004.To develop the conceptual new generation of amphicar, the team has to research on the first generation model manufactured in 1961-1968. As described on the above, to beat in performance as well as in energy efficiency, team need to be digested in the ideas of Gibbs Aquada.

To meet the above requirements, amphicar should be assembled with jet engine using Supersonic Amphibious (SSA) Technology to increase the acceleration compare with the last generation. The vehicle will have the maximum capacity of 4 persons, which average body weight of 80KG. The amphicar should have minimum operation hour of 2 hours in the water.

The expected project duration for the whole project will be 30 days with reserved one week for any delay. The project can be divided into 4 major chapters, which are Systems Engineering Management Plan, System Requirement Specification, Functional Analysis and Allocation and System Specification. Each chapter will have 2 days for preparation, 3 days for research and 2 days for final report.

2 Work breakdown structure

2.1 Gantt Chart

2.1.1 Schedule

Functional Analysis & Allocation

2.2 Cost



Budget (US$)

Expected Cost (US$)


Project Plan




1 Statement of Work



2 Work Breakdown Structure



2.1 Schedule



2.2 Cost



2.3 Product Testing Method



3 Program Management



4 Risk Management



5 Resources Required



6 Deliverables



7 Organization Structure



8 Operational Concept



System Requirements Specification




9 Scope



9.1 System overview



9.2 Document overview



10 Referenced Document



11 Needs



12 Requirements



12.1 General Requirements



12.2/3 Priority Table & Method Table



12.4 System Capability or Mode



Functional Analysis and Allocation




13 Scope



14 Referenced Documents



15 Functional analysis



16.1 Physical Overview



16.2 Component details



System test specification




Document overview



Test detail



Final system specification




Final analysis & Documentation






Total cost for the whole project



2.4 Product testing method

Testing is a kind of demonstration the abilities of the product in terms of performance characteristics, advantages and limitations that have been adequately determined for a specific purpose. Reliability is an objective measurement of method reproducibility. If the test is not sufficiently reliable, that product is not qualified for using on intended purposes.

In order to achieve the relevant outcomes of our amphicar’s objectives, there is some common stages of testing method will be gone through as listed below;

Risk Assessment Methods – identify new methods in testing methods and strategies

Research – investigate mechanisms and other resources that can be applied in design and test activities

Development – incorporate strategies into standardized test methods

Validation – make sure the accuracy and reproducibility are 100% granted

Acceptance – determine acceptability for users

Implementation – ensure effective ways of method for operators and users

3 Program management

Project manager will look after the entire project, call for meeting two times a week for progress checking and review whenever issues arise during the period. Project engineer will work out on design specification to be developed and tested accordingly. Risk officer will report risk resolution status to management team. Technical and sale engineers will control the quality assurances and functionality of entire project.

Individual will have second plan for the case of emergency if first plan is failed to implement. Each and everyone will communicate and discuss the progress of the project via phone, online instant messages and email.

4 Risk management

4.1 Purpose

This document describes how we perform the job of managing risk for Amphicar II project. It defines roles and responsibilities for participants in risk processes, risk management activities that will be carried out, schedule and budget for risk management activities including any tools and technique that will be used.

4.1.1 Project Manager

The project manager will assign a Risk Officer to the project for identifying purposes on the project’s organization chart. Project Manager, Risk Officer and all project engineers should have videoconference biweekly to review the status of the risk mitigation efforts, review the exposure assessments for any new risk items.

4.1.2 Risk Officer

Coordination of risk identification and analysis activities, maintenance of the project’s risk list, notification of project management of new risk items and submission of the report in risk resolution status to management.

4.1.3 Project Engineers/Sale/Technical Engineer

Officer will assign each newly identified risk to a Project Engineer, who will assess the exposure and probability for the risk factor and report the results of that analysis back to the Risk Officer. All Project Engineers are also responsible for performing the steps of the mitigation plan and reporting progress to the Risk Officer biweekly.

4.2 Risk Documentation

Risk Identification

1. Man Power – From individuals or organizations, illness, death, resignation.

2. Project – Job taking too long, unable to complete within deadline.

3. Financial – Over spent project budget, no enough fund to complete the project.

4. System Failure – Sever or PC down or crash.

5. Communication Break Down – Failure to pass down information.

6. Technical – Individual weakness of technical skill and knowledge

7. Procedural – Failure of accountability internal system and control.

8. Health & Safety – Injuries staff in the course of project.

9. Security – Loss of data through unauthorized access.

10. Confidential – Improper used of data by the staff

4.3 Analysis of Risk and Risk Rating Matrix

4.3.1 Risk Likelihood Assessment Table



Almost Certain

1 in 10 Chance

Likely To Occur


1 in 100 Chance

Will Probably Occur


1 in 1000 Chance

May Occur Occasionally


1 in 10,000 Chance

Do Not Expect To Happen


1 in 100,000 Chance

Do Not Believe Will Ever Happen

4.3.2 Risk Rating Matrix Table








Almost Certain



















Very Low






Very Low

Very Low




4.3.3 Risk Action Level Table

Risk Level


Very Low

Risk Officer


Risk Officer


Department / Team


Project Manager / Department

4.4 Risk response

1. Man Power – For individuals or organization, illness, death, resignation, personal matter.

Lack of manpower could have caused the direct impact on the whole project progress, such as delaying on the deliverable of the project within given time.

According to our Gantt chart, to lessen the impact or to overcome for above risk, we have targets for each section to complete one day before the dead line and also as we have split up our project, everyone has to be submitted to the project manager advanced in two days before the dead line. So that, in case someone leaves in an unexpected condition, we still have time slot to cope the job within the given time.

2. Project – Job taking too long, unable to complete within deadline.

There could be many reasons for the delay. It is very important and we could face the liability for the delay period.

To overcome this risk, we have reserved some tolerance period and fund. Keep track on the project progress with the Gantt chart schedule.

3. Financial – After spending more on low priorities, there is not enough funds to complete the project.

There are a lot of factors that could cause the financial over spent. The major cost consuming factors are labor cost during the test process to improve the functionality due to unexpected time delay and longer period to done the test. Improper budget plan may cause the project failure.

To overcome the risk, we have allocated the budget accordingly and set aside some fund, so that in case of financial crisis or in the worst scenario, we still have some budget to work out. To minimize the test cost without jeopardizing the quality of the product, we implemented all the test procedure and specification carefully.

4. System Failure – Sever / PC down or crash.

Equipment break down could cause the major issue as well. In the event of server or computer which important information stored was crashed or unable to operate, there will be a delay. We need to re-do all the work and it might cause project failure.

To overcome and lessen the impact from this risk, everyone had kept their project information not only in the computer but also at external hard drive and thumb drive. After sending out to project manager at the given date, the project manager had compiled all the individual work and saved it in his external hard drive as well.

5. Communication Break Down – Failure to pass down information.

The breakdown in communication could cause the total destruction of the entire project. To overcome this risk, we have a schedule to meet one week 2 times, the first meeting of the week will be conducted by video conference.

6. Technical Skills- Weakness of knowledge in technical skill could prolong the employee is handling and maybe even impose the danger or damage to himself or the whole project. To overcome this risk, each one of us has to monitor closely and updates each other. Anyone finds out some important information on the web or book that could improve our knowledge and skill for this project, we had to share by mail or scan the page and attach it.

7. Procedure – Failure of accountability, internal system and control.

Failure of accountability, internal system and control could cause the whole organization structure collapsed.

To lessen this risk, we had already implemented the role and responsibility for each one of us and organization chart. This will ensure each one of remain still on the track while doing project. Moreover by having flexible organization chart (rotation of duty) will ensure that everyone is involved.

8. Health & Safety – Injuries staff in the course of project.

Health and safety always has been the highest priority in every organization. Lacking of safety requirement could cause paralyze the whole organization and goal.

To overcome this risk, we had been oriented with safety requirement and regulation issued by WHS (Work place Safety and Health).

9. Security – Loss of data through unauthorized access.

Loss of data through unauthorized access could have more than unexpected impact on the progress of the project.

To overcome the risk, we had implemented all the security access code to our equipments and facility, which contains the information’s of the entire project.

10. Confidential – Improper used of data by the staff.

Improper used of confidential data may cause in leak aging of information to the third party as well as there can be bad reputation in Society.

To lessen the risk, we had been brief all the staffs regarding about how to take precaution on this issue.

4.5 Risk Assessment





Risk level

Current control

Mitigation options

Risk owner

Man power

Delay project




Back up man power

Set target earlier date

Risk Officer

Overrun dead line





Closely monitor with schedule time line

Risk Officer

Over spent on budget

Project failure




Set aside some fund

Risk Officer

System Down





Back up system

Department /Team

Communication break down

Project failure




Twice a week meeting

Risk Officer

Lack of skill and knowledge

May danger to other




Sharing knowledge

Risk Officer

Failure of accountability





Role & responsibility

Risk Officer

Health & safety

Sick or Injury




Brief on WHS

Risk Officer

Lack of security





Implement access code

Risk Officer

Leakage of confidential

Operational, Financial




Brief on the rule

Risk Officer

5 Resources required

Defining the resource requirement is dividing the responsibilities of the people who involved. To do this, initially, listing roles and responsibilities for the project then start with the ideal way in which the project should be organized. It is often useful to refer back to the previous project that the people done before which kind of roles and responsibilities exhibited.

Also review the resources available such as software, PCs, budgets limitation for the project and the individual member skill that they possess. Lastly, it is required to arrange the responsibilities, which is suited for every team member.

6 Deliverables

The projects are monitored from planning to operations. In accordance with the customers’ needs, wants and expectations, the project should have to plan towards delivering. The purposes are to complete on time, within budget, with the highest degree of quality, etc. Following are some facts of deliverables –

Procurement and Contract Management

The decisions are to be made including selection of contractors and the types of contracts to be utilized.

Executive Summary

This should be a clear and concise summary of the current status of the project such as budget, schedule, quality etc…

Project Activities and Deliverables

This is to highlight the deliverables occurring the previous month and planning for the next one to report in meeting, audits and other reviews, design packages submitted etc.

Action Items/Outstanding Issues

The action items/ outstanding issues may be dropped from this section upon full implementation of the remedial and upon no further monitoring anticipated.

Product Quality

The product is needed to plan corrective actions for deficient in quality.

Internal and Stakeholder Communications

It should have a discussion between the internal members and stakeholder.

Environmental Monitoring

The environmental permits may be obtained to specify additional requirements to be adhered.

Safety and Security

In order to complete the project, safety and security is required for all individuals working.

Traffic Management

This should be the requirement for providing monitoring and oversight of day-to-day maintenance of traffic operations.

Project Communications (Media and Public Information)

A critical objective for the projects is to maintain the trust, support and confidence of the media and public throughout the project.

Human Resources Management

This includes how roles and responsibilities for the project. Any other project functions that the project sponsors feel would be beneficial to include in the project Management Plan to ultimately help in meeting the project Objectives.

7 Organisational structure

7.1 Roles And Responsibility

Project Manager will manage the entire project, assign right task to the right person, call up the meeting and always take note of the deadline.

Project Engineer will directly assist to project manager with majority in developing and testing the project.

Sale Engineer shall have responsibilities of marketing, budget control, banking and purchasing.

Technical Engineer manages the technical part and specification of the project.

Risk Officer will maintain the project’s risk list, safety and security of the entire project.

8 Operational Concept

The project is about the design of the Amphicar-II which is the amphibious vehicle and able to operate as a recreational water vehicle and travel on the land. The aim of the project is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle and crossing in the English Channel to beat the record of Richard Branson set in the Gibbs Aquada (2004).

General description of the project

The project carried into 4 parts.

a. Draft systems engineering management plan (SEMP)

b. Draft system requirement specification (SRS)

c. Draft functional analysis and allocation (FAA)

d. Final system specification (SS)

Before we start the project, we formed the organizational group. Then we analyzed the work breakdown structure, such as schedule, cost and product testing method. First, we drew the gantt chat for schedule and estimated the cost. Then, we analyzed the program and risk management and defined resources and types of deliverables.

In the second stage, we defined needs and system requirement specifications. The needs include able to travel on road and water, environmentally friendly, energy efficient and cross the English Channel to beat Gibbs Aquada. The requirements are general, safety, user, environmental, security and privacy and legal requirements.

In the third stage, we sketched the functional analysis and allocation. We used the core software to produce the diagram. We sketched the physical designs and write the component details and matched them. And we drew the flow chart to analyze the system.

In the final stage, we performed the system testing and summarized the project. And, we made the modification according to the test result. Then, we prepared the report and handover to the customer.

System Requirements Specification (SRS)

9 Scope

The aim of amphicar-II project is to produce an energy efficient, environmentally friendly consumer vehicle that is capable of travelling on road and operating as a recreational water vehicle. Moreover to introduce the vehicle to public, the first prototype will be used in crossing in the English Channel, beating Richard Branson’s record set in the Gibbs Aquada.

After years of ‘on the road’ development, amphibious cars start to introduce to the public which can travel not only on the land also on the water. In this project, we are trying to pursue the new technologies to provide better innovative, efficient, affordable options for daily life. To concern about this, below will briefly describe what the system all about is according to purpose, operation and maintenance.

9.1 System Overview

9.1.1 Vehicle On The Road

Hybrid system

Hybrid means any vehicle that combines two or more sources of power that can directly or indirectly provide propulsion power. [7] It uses the rechargeable energy storage system and uses as power source to drive the vehicle. As concerns increase over global warming, hybrid uses less fuel and causes less pollution to environment as well as easy mode of transportation and lessening.

Operation of hybrid system with engine

According to our needs, we should be using Gasoline-electric Hybrid Structure that can compatible to our aims. This structure includes the following parts to operate as hybrid system;

Gasoline engine – the gasoline engine using in our Amphicar II project will be smaller than other normal car engines but it can help to reduce emissions and increase efficiency

Fuel tank – the fuel tank in a hybrid acts as an energy storage device for gasoline engine

Electric motor – the technology of electric motor using at hybrid system is very advance and can be used not only as a motor also as a generator to supply power source to engine. Electric motor can pull energy from the batteries as well as will recharge again while the vehicle is moving.

Generator – the generator only produce electric power to the engine

Batteries – the batteries are the energy storage devices for the electric motor in a hybrid car.

As for energy efficiency and environmentally friendly, we have choose to use hybrid technology engine for our amphicar-II. Hybrid system is the wave of the future and there is more incentive to purchase one.

In our conceptual design for land, the standard production model of Amphicar II will be sport car design and power by larger V-6 engine and more powerful electric motor, with the combination of the concept of plug-in hybrid that will able to go from zero to 62 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour) in 3.5 sec and will has a top speed of 187miles per hour (301 kilometer per hours) with CVTs continuously variable transmission 5 speed manual high performance close ratio transmission. It will be the first ever it’s kind of in amphibian car, which can able to deliver the performance of sport car with maximum fuel efficiency.

The vehicle type will be front engine, front wheel drive with 3.73-1 axle ratio, 2-doors, 4-passengers, convertible top, fitted with four wheel independent suspension and brake with stainless steel rotor. The amphicar-II will be approximately weighs 3,300lbs(1500 kg) and the weigh will be split up 53-47%, with 53% on the drive tires on the front Operation

The controls and operation will be completely carlike on the land. On water the accelerator can be use as a throttle and the steering remains as the same. Vehicle Style

The styling of the amphicar-II body structure will be look a bit like Lamborghini. The dimension of the vehicle is 4 meter in length, 2 meter in width and 1.5 meter in height. General Feature Of The Vehicle

There will be climate-control system, 4- air bags, tachometer, driver’s & passenger’s electric seat, driver’s seat memory, speedometer for land and water, cruise control mode, oil pressure, engine temperature, voltage meter, gasoline fume detector, bilge ventilation blower, compass, clock, navigation (GPS), auto pilot system in water mode and AM/FM stereo.

9.1.2 Vehicle On Water

Jet Engine

To provide faster speed with better performance, we decided to use jet engine with lightweight and compact design while driving on the water. Though there are different types with varies sizes in jet engines, the technology used in jet engine is all the same. The fact is they depend on the high-pressure column of water pushed out of the engine to propel the boat.

To travel on the water our Amphicar-II will be power by Berkeley Marine Jet with power trim package and it will has capable of speed up to 40mph (65 km/h) on water. It will able to pull a water skier easily. The Berkeley Marine jet will be design to be lighter and more compact. It will have half a length and one-third the weight, compare to most other water jet. The impeller will be installing and contain inside the body of the jet, therefore it will be very safe for swimmers. The amphicar-II will have a low speed reversing capability by running the water jet in reverse direction. The steering will be mounted on the back of the stator nozzle and will connect to the car steering wheel. Main Body Materials

Another great thing about this amphicar-II will be durable and attractive. The lower part of the amphicar-II will be lightweight component the 5052-alloy aluminum single piece hull. The upper part of the amphicar-II body will use lightweight fiberglass to minimize the overall weight of the amphicar-II. Feature On The Lower Part Of The Body

The hull will be design to be aerodynamic in road mode and hydrodynamic in water mode. It will provide over 1750kg of hydrodynamic lift. It will also provide a stable planning surface allowing the amphicar-II to skin/plane over the surface of the water when given sufficient from the jet. The hull will have a keel fin that will give s directional stability and provide grip for high speed handling performance on water. There will be a spray rails and chin either side of the body, it will prevent the water spray to the cockpit and ensure the occupants remain dry. Also it will provide grip to give exceptional maneuverability. Special Feature

The hull will be pack with floatation foam and the amphicar-II will not sink if it knocked at the bottom part of the body. It will only float on the water in the worst scenario, but it would not sink. Special Feature Of Suspension

This amphicar-II will have retractable 4 points independent front and rear suspension system. By retracting its four wheels up to within the wheels housing, it will prevent from the wheel dragging to the water and will increase its water performance, and better manoeuvre ability. Also it will automatically decouple when the engine no longer drives them. The hydraulic rams that move the control arm suspended corner up and down, also serve as automatic ride height control.

9.1.3 Mode Transition

There will be mode selection switch, to change either water mode or land mode. The mode selection switch will interlock with water sensor, to prevent from changing to water mode while driving on the road. So that to change from land to water mode, the water sensor has to detect enough water depth in order to retract the four wheels. The switch will also have a cover to prevent from accidentally switching of mode select switch.

By pressing the mode selector button to marine mode, it will drops the clutch, disengages the road drive, shifts the transmission into aquatic duty, retract the wheels, the jet drive kick in and take off in water. All this process will take place within 10 sec.

The retraction of the wheel will be as same as what AQUADA used but only difference is that the wheels are retracted upwardly and aluminum plates will be occupied firmly without leak aging at the place of the wheels. So the entire Amphicar looks like totally as a boat floating on the water surface confidently. In order to prevent leaks, this Amphicar-II has covered with a single frame using aluminum metal.

9.1.4 Performance

It will be like a sport car on the road and speedboat on the water.

9.1.5 Maintenance

Frequent hull inspections at panel seams and joints are essential. The user should check and clean after cruising in salt or brackish water is a thorough hosing with fresh water for the entire hull and all exposed suspension and nautical propulsion components.

Items need to be check by service engineers are lists down below,

1. Road test

2. Wash oil filter cap and breather

3. Wash air filter and carburetor

4. Renew filter

5. Wash out the petrol pump

6. Clean petrol gauge of three way cock

7. Check fan belt tension and dynamo mounting bolts

8. Check cooling and heating system

9. Clean sparking plugs

10. Renew sparking plugs

11. Check and clean dynamo and starter motor

12. Check and tighten cylinder head nuts

13. Check valve clearance (cold) adjust if necessary

14. Check ignition clean and adjust contact points

15. Check engine, gearbox, radiator and exhaust mountings

16. Check brake and clutch pedal travel, also handbrake

17. Check the gear shift mechanism

18. Check play of steering, adjust if necessary

19. Check tightness of steering mounting bolts and linkage

20. Check play of stub axle bolts, re tighten if necessary

21. Check steering knuckle arm play, re tighten if necessary

22. Check brake hoses for condition and leaks

23. Check front and rear hub bearing adjustment

24. Check shock absorber mounting and coil springs

25. Check function of door hinges and locks

26. Check weather-strips and sealers for condition. Apply talc powder to door sealers

27. Check the vehicle for water tightness

28. Check function of all Bowden cables

29. Check tightness of exhaust flange to manifold

30. Check all bolts, screws and nuts of body, retighten

31.Check wheel studs for tightness, retighten if necessary

32.Check tire pressures

33.Interchange road wheels to balance wear

34.Check toe-in align if necessary

35.Wash Bilge pump and strainer

36.Check operation of all electrical components, adjust headlamps

37.Wipe clean door handles, gear shift, and steering wheel

38.Test run, final inspection, check idling of engine, adjust if necessary

Items to be service during maintenance.

1. Grease castor rods

2. Grease steering universal joints

2a. Check steering box oil level

3. Grease stub axle

4. Grease axles tubes

5. Pock fr

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