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The Use of Enhancement Drugs in Professional Sports

 Executive Summary
The use of banned drugs in the field of sports is regarded as doping. The drugs used in this case are those associated with enhancing performance of the athletes. Other than in the Olympics, the drugs are also used by soccer, baseball, basketball players, and cyclists. The use of drugs in enhancing performance in spots is considered unethical and illegal. The major goal of international sports is to realize the talents of the athletes as well as give each athlete an equal chance to participate and perform in the sports. The International Olympic Committee has come up with policies which prohibit the use of such drugs.
These policies also dictate the punishments that those involved will face. Doping in sports began since the beginning of sports itself from the period of chariot racing to present day sports. The sporting organizations and authorities have been strict over the past few years with ensuring that cases of doping in the sporting activities are minimized. Imposing harsher punishments on doping could either bring out positive or negative results. This study explores the use of drugs as well as the types of punishments imposed to curb doping in sport.
Contents
1.0 Introduction……………………………………………6
1.1 Commonly Used Substances……………………………..8
1.1.1 Steroids………………………………………………8
1.1.2 Stimulants
2.0 BASKETBALL
2.1 Policies by the NBA against Doping
2.1.1 Testing Principles
2.1.2 FIBA’S Responsibilities
2.2 Cases of Drug Use in Basketball
2.2.1 Chris Anderson
2.2.2 Rashard Lewis
2.2.3 Joakim Noah
2.2.4 John Drew
2.4 Drug Violation Penalties in Basketball
3.0 BASEBALL
3.1 Cases of Drug Use in Baseball
3.1.1 Barry Bonds
3.1.2 Roger Clemens
3.1.3 Mark McGwire
3.1.4 Manny Ramirez………………………………………………………………….18
3.2 Penalties
3.2.1 Enhanced Testing Procedures
3.2.2 Harsher Penalties………………………………………..19
4.0 SOCCER………………………………………………19
4.1 Drug Use in Association to Soccer
4.2 International Associations
4.2.1 FIFA
4.2.2 UEFA
4.3 Drug Control
4.4 Drug Use in Soccer
4.4.1 Albania
4.4.2 Argentina
4.4.3 Australia
4.4.4 East Germany
4.4.5 England
5 DOPING PENALTIES
5.1 Performance Enhancing Drugs
5.1.1 General Measures Dealing with Drug Use
5.2 Individual Penalties for Violations
5.2.1 Suspension and Disqualification
5.2.2 BANS
5.3 Team Penalties
5.4 Harsher Penalties
5.4.1 Use of Steroid Passports
5.4.2 Four-Year Ban
5.4.3 Testing Methods
5.4.4 Education and Creating Awareness
6.0 Conclusion and Recomendations
7.0 Works Cited

  1. Introduction

          Doping has become part of the sporting activities since the beginning of sports itself. In the early ages, the fittest athletes and combatants were selected to represent their nation where most of them were fed with nutritious diets which were meant to be beneficial during their sporting activities. Berserkers, for instance, used butotens which was a liquid mixture and was meant to increase his bodily strength as well as protect him from insanity. Research has shown that there are many drugs taken in the name of enhancing the power of the athletes and providing the necessary nutrients in the body. Some of these drugs can make the athletes work hard all day where he or she is not affected by thirst, hunger, or tiresomeness. The drugs are also able to keep the individuals happy and showing a cheerfulness throughout the day.
The sports organizations and authorities have taken the doping issue very serious. They have put in place strict penalties and rules for the individuals who are caught using the drugs. There are organizations such as the International Association of Athletics Federation, FIFA, IAAF, Union Cyclist Internationale and the International Olympic Committee.
The sports federation has received assistance from the technological progress in pharmacology which has enabled them to easily detect most types of performance-enhancing drugs used by the athletes. The progress in pharmacology has also enabled the organizations to detect the measures and tricks used to make the consumed drugs undetectable. Some sports, such as basketball, have not put much effort in reducing cases of doping when compared to sports such as baseball and cycling. As a result, a lot of criticism arises on the sporting authorities who are accused of not putting enough measures to deal with the doping issues.
There are those commentators who are proposing that since it is quite challenging for doping to be completely eradicated in the sporting activities, that doping should be legalized. Most people disagree with this proposal since the drugs used in doping activities have adverse effects on the health of the users and should thereby not be authorized. This step would enhance competition in the sporting activities, but on the other hand, it would increase cases of health-associated risks. Some measures put in place to curb doping include the use of laboratory tests and scientific research of the drugs used.
The primary focus of this paper will be the current and future penalties and rules put in place to deal with doping activities in sports. A wide array of topics will be considered with more depth. It will begin with discussing the types of drugs used in the doping process such as steroids, anabolic steroids, and stimulants. Secondly, it will consider doping activities in three major sports which include soccer, basketball, and baseball. Examples of famous doping cases mentioned in the different sports will be addressed. In addition, this paper will compare the prevalence of doping activities among three different sports in addition to others such as cycling and athletics. The side effects of the doping substances used by the athletes will be considered and discussed.
1.1 Commonly Used Substances
1.1.1 Steroids
Steroids, particularly anabolic steroids, are drug substances in a hormonal form which are either consumed orally or via injections affecting the hormonal system of the body by stimulating the body to produce more testosterone. The intake of the drug leads to the increase of muscle mass. There are also other effects of the steroids which include growth of microbial bacteria which could lead to infections, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. In addition, the users are at a higher risk of suffering from dermatological conditions such as severe acne as well as infertility. They also lead to baldness and liver damage.  Steroids also have severe mental effects on the users. Some of these results include depression, aggression, and in severe cases can lead to suicide.
Most drugs sold in the black-market trade have street names, and so does the anabolic steroids. Some examples include the stanozolol which is named winstrol during manufacture, but in the streets, the drug is called ‘winny.’ Oxymetholone and methyl testosterone are chemically like testosterone and are manufactured as designer drugs often used by the athletes to pass the drug tests. Other common steroids used include Androstenedione, Anabol, and HGH[1].
1.1.2 Stimulants
Stimulants are drugs which are taken to excite the central nervous system to interfere with the mental behavior and function. The results of the drugs are the decrease of the individual’s sensation of exhaustion and leads to the excitement of the user. Stimulants are regarded as the second largest class of drugs which are used in the sporting activities to enhance performance[2]. Some of these drugs which are categorized under stimulants include Caffeine, modafinil, cocaine, ephedrine, and amphetamine. Caffeine is not a severe stimulant when compared to the rest. It has thereby not been banned by the sports authorities including WADA since 2004.
Benzedrine is another name for amphetamine which is the street name of the drug in the black-market trading environment. The drug was first detected in sports in the year 1936. It was commonly nicknamed ‘speed’. Research shows that the drug was commonly used during the Second World War to enhance the speed of the fighters. The drug became a threat after the Second World War when its side effects were discovered[3]. When consumed, the drug leads to better performance in relation to speed but also compels the user the increased need for the users to take risks and reduced judgment.  Research and investigation reports by WADA show that Benzedrine was used by Everton, which is a top soccer club in the English football league, in the year 1962-63. The use of the drug led to their championship. The drugs had been previously introduced to the players during the 1961-62 season after which most of the players became addicts of the drug[4].
Due to the increased attention of the press to the use of the drugs already listed in WADA’s list of prohibited drugs, the athletes have resolved to the use of designer stimulants. Most of these designer stimulants are not listed in the list of prohibited drugs but are customized in such a way that they contain the same chemical structures as those of ephedrine and amphetamine which means that they produce the same effects as the prohibited drugs in the body of the user. Some examples include ephendrome, fluoroamphetamines, and mephendrone[5].
2.0 BASKETBALL
Basketball is among the most renowned games in sports in addition to soccer, baseball, rugby, swimming, cycling and athletics. FIBA and NBA have signed the agreements which prohibit doping in the sporting activities. However, over the past years, basketball authorities have been continuously accused of failing to take the doping cases in sports seriously. Therefore, WADA has accused them of creating gaps in the NBA Anti-Drug Programs policy[6]. Other major professional sports have put in a lot of efforts in ensuring the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code. Examples of such professional sports include the NFL (National Football League) and MLB (Major League Baseball) in the US. According to research, use of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids has gradually increased in the NBA and are becoming quite problematic[7].
The NBA authorities claim that their reluctance in the process of fighting the doping drugs is based on the claim that they do not find the drugs effective in providing an added advantage of the users in the sport. The authorities believe that the skills required for the sport are unique when compared to other sports. The authorities add that in order to be successful in the sport, the drugs do not have as much an impact as the skill needed. The drugs are not able to enhance the required skills since the drugs enhance the muscles and strength, thus not much effort is put out by the basketball authorities in preventing the use of the drugs[8].
The NBA anti-doping program has often been referred to as being “soft” by the general sports authorities. Over the years, basketball has not been widely affected by the doping cases when compared to other sports. More so, there has been constant threats of federal intervention in case the program was not considered sensitive and given the attention it required. As such, the authorities have put in efforts to step up the program[9].
2.1 Policies by the NBA against Doping
2.1.1 Testing Principles
The NBA authorities negotiated agreements with the players concerning the use of doping drugs. The agreement stated that all players are supposed to undergo four random tests every season. More so, each off season, two random tests are to be conducted on the players as well. The tests are supposed to be conducted randomly by a third party which is an independent entity. The players will receive no notification of when the tests are to take place. The NBPA and the NBA are not responsible for the method of selection to pick out the players to be tested nor the scheduling of the dates when the tests will be conducted[10].
In a case where a player is suspected to be using the performance enhancement drugs, the player is summoned to an independent medical expert who has the authority to order a thorough course of testing. After the results test positive, the player is subjected to treatment where they are given two options. The first option is for the player to turn themselves into a medical facility for treatment and abide by the rules of that facility to avoid punishment. The second option is to be convicted and forced to seek medical attention[11].
In the recent past. FIBA has realized that the cases of the players using the performance enhancing drugs in basketball has increased. This realization was based on the AAF (Adverse Analytical Findings) report on the drug called Higenamine. The players were then advised to thoroughly analyze the list of prohibited methods of intakes and of drugs released in 2017 by WADA. The regulations of FIBA state that every player has a personal responsibility in ensuring that they do not test positive of any of the drugs on the list[12].
Within the sports ethos, the difference between losing and winning are determined by training, hard work, and talent of the players in any competition on an even playing field. FIBA is thereby determined to take extremely serious measures to fight doping in basketball[13].
2.1.2 FIBA’S Responsibilities

  • For all competitions, FIBA intends to organize doping controls.
  • To manage all off season testing activities using its Registered Testing Pool.
  • Reviewing all national Anti-Doping Rule Violations and managing results in case of AAF reports.
  • Management of Therapeutic Use Exemptions.
  • Distribution and production of anti-doping resources for education and doping control programs.
  • Co-operating and ensuring co-ordination with the Anti-Doping Organizations in the basketball sport.

2.2 Cases of Drug Use in Basketball
2.2.1 Chris Anderson
Chris was born in 7th July 1978 and grew up in Long Beach, California. He then moved to Lola in Texas where he played at Blinn College for one year. He began his professional basketball career in the Chinese Basketball Association as well as in minor leagues in America. He was also a player in the NBA for the New Orleans Hornets and the Denver Nuggets[14]. In 2006, he was banned from NBA due to violation of the drug policy for two years. In 2008, he was reinstated and went back to playing for the Hornets. Later in the year, he went back to playing for Denver where he played for the team until the year 2012. In January 2013, he began playing for the Miami Heat where they won the championships within the same year. He is the only student from Blinn College who plays in the NBA[15].
For Chris Anderson, his crime of violating the anti-doping policies for the NBA was not fairly punished since he was only suspended for two years after which he went back and was reinstated in the team with which he was previously playing before the suspension[16]. The NBA did not take his drug use seriously and his punishment would seem to be nothing more then a slap on the wrist.
2.2.2 Rashard Lewis
Rashard Lewis was suspended by the NBA from the Orlando Magic for ten games based on his violation of drug policy. He tested positive on the use of performance-enhancing drugs where high levels of testosterone were detected in the body. He had even missed three previous games before the tests due to the knee tendinitis he had been suffering from. Rashard claimed that he had taken an over-the-counter supplement and was not aware that it contained, dehydroepiandrosterone, a prohibited substance[17]. The elevated levels of testosterone could be attained through injection or ingestion. The high levels of testosterone help in improving the recovery time as well as building muscle mass. The substance suspected to be included in the drugs and is associated with high levels of testosterone is the DHEA[18].
During the press coverage of the Rashard issue, the officials of the basketball league refused to disclose the names of other players in the sport who had also been suspended over the doping issue. The reports by the media have shown that several the players have been suspended since the year 1999[19].
The player was very apologetic and hoped that the unintended mistake was not going to reflect poorly on the team. He also hoped that the situation would be a lesson for other team members so that they can take the supplement drugs only after consulting a physician in the field[20]. Due to the issue of doping associated with the over-the-counter drugs, the federal authorities have been strict on the supplement industry. The Food and Drug Administration alarmed all individuals advising them to be extra careful when dealing taking the over-the-counter drugs[21].
Lewis was then suspended from ten games which is equivalent to an eighth of the season. The suspension period was because it was the first positive test. In the NBA a person testing positive for the first time is treated differently than in baseball and soccer. In baseball, a first positive test leads to a suspension of 50 games which is equal to third of the season. In football, it results in suspension in 4 games which is equal to a quarter of the season[22].
As punishment, Lewis was forced to pay a fine of $1.6 million out of his salary amount of $ 18 million for that season. The ADA claimed that it was not an intended move by the player to indulge in drug use since there were several supplement industries which wanted to profit from the athletes by compromising the integrity of national sports[23].
2.2.3 Joakim Noah
Noah is a 32-year-old player who has also tested positive for an over-the-counter supplement which had been listed in by WADA under the prohibited drugs. Noah had just undergone surgery of his left knee on February 27th of this year to remove a loose particle. After the NBA doctor declared that he was fit to play, his suspension of twenty games commenced immediately. It was also quite unfortunate that he also was not aware that the supplement he took contained the drug. As such, he fully co-operated with the investigators in the issue. The drug used in this case was called ligandrol.
2.2.4 John Drew
Drew was born in 1954 and is currently a retired basketball player. Drew became a professional player after finishing his studies at Gardner-Web University. Drew played basketball for eleven seasons in the NBA. He managed to earn awards as an All-Star player in the NBA two times in his career. Drew became one of the earliest victims of the violation of the drug policy put in place by David Stern, who was the current commissioner of the NBA[24].
Drew’s career ended as a result of drug addiction and engagement where he was dealing with cocaine. The drug problem led to Drew missing out on 38 games so that he could attend his drug rehabilitation sessions. In 1984, he was able to temporarily overcome the drug problem where he won the title of the Comeback Player of the year in the league. In 1985, however, he relapsed back into his drug addiction. From then on, he violated the drug policy several times before he was completely kicked out of the NBA in 1986. He was also arrested several times for drug possession. As such, he became the first individual in basketball to ever be banned from playing for his whole life[25].
2.4 Drug Violation Penalties in Basketball
The NBA has a constitution which contains the drug policies listed under the Article 21. The constitution gives the NBA commissioner the authority to issue disciplinary actions either in the form of suspension or fines to the players who violate the policies. Some of the issues that could lead to the penalties are on-court incidents, conducts against the state law, conducts against fair play, and misconduct towards the league or the general basketball sport.
There is also an agreement signed between the NBPA and the NBA which states that any party can appeal to a verdict made against them in case the fine is more than $50,000 or if a suspension is more than twelve games[26]. The most severe violations are associated with substance abuse or in point shaving. In such cases permanent bans are issued.
There are cases in which the banned players can be reinstated after two years where an anti-drug agreement has to be signed first between the NBPA and the league.
3.0 BASEBALL
Doping among professional athletes has for a long time been known and acknowledged as a major delinquent since the 1960s. This was a result of the BALCO investigation where the issue gained prominence[27]. Baseball has been experiencing increased rising cases of Anti-Doping Policies violation.
Most of the players used steroids in order to enhance their performance in the games. Some of the individuals who have succeeded in their careers through the help of the steroids include Alex Rodriguez and Mark McGwire[28]. The cases in baseball have escalated to the degree that the harsher penalties on the players do not seem to work as they were intended to.
3.1 Cases of Drug Use in Baseball
3.1.1 Barry Bonds
Bonds was a renowned baseball player who broke two records which were previously unbeatable in the MBL records. Bonds’ personal trainer was indicted for supplying steroids
to other baseball players by a grand jury. During the investigation in the year 2003, he was forced to testify. During his testimonies, he denied the allegation that he was taking illegal drug supplements. He was then indicted for making false statements as well as obstructing justice in the year 2007. The verdict on Bonds obstruction of justice was made on 2011. The verdict was upheld in 2013. He was then punished with two years of probation as well one month of house arrest[29]
3.1.2 Roger Clemens
Roger Clemens was a seven-time award winner in the Cy Young Awards. His former trainer testified against him in a court of law. The trainer claimed that he had injected the player with steroids several times. Clemens failed to admit that he was using PEDs before the Congress in 2008 under oath. His denial led to the federal grand jury convicting him for six felonies which included perjury, obstruction of justice, and false statements[30].
3.1.3 Mark McGwire
After this win, the public started suspecting that McGwire was using steroids. McGwire denied the accusations although he reluctantly admitted that he had been using Androstenedione which boosted testosterone levels. Although the drug had not been prohibited by MLB at the time. He continued denying the allegations about using prohibited PEDs for several years. After 2010, however, the former player admitted that he had indeed used steroids before[31].
3.1.4 Manny Ramirez
Ramirez was successful in his career when he was playing with the Boston Red Sox and was also the MVP of the 2004 World Series. He had also achieved the position of and All-Star 12 times in his career. His profession was overturned in 2009 as he was playing with the Los Angeles Dodgers. He was found to be using the women’s fertility drug often known as HGC which facilitates higher levels of testosterone in the body[32]. He was then suspended for fifty games. He then faced a suspension of 100 games when he was playing with the Tampa Bay Rays after he violated the drug policy in his second test. Ramirez later retired from baseball. After a while, Ramirez came back to playing baseball in 2012. He played with the Oakland Athletics although he had to serve a punishment of fifty games suspension before he began playing[33].
3.2 Penalties
The MLB and the MLBPA signed an agreement to make changes to the drug-related penalties. The authorities imposed more severe changes to the drug testing program which entails more enhanced testing procedures as well as harsher punishments[34].
3.2.1 Enhanced Testing Procedures

  • The program’s purpose was to increase the number of random tests conducted during the season. The approximated number of tests carried out during the season is 1,400. The increased in-season tests will amount to about 3200 tests.
  • The number of tests conducted for the HGH drug were increased. 400 more tests would be conducted randomly annually. During Spring Training, there are a total of 1200 tests which are collected.
  • The program will also adapt the use of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry tests. These are tests which involve the use of blood samples where the tests detect HGH in the body. The tests are meant to be carried out more randomly even though only one specimen per player will be adapted. The effectiveness of these tests has been approved by the World-Anti-Doping Agency.

3.2.2 Harsher Penalties

  • Any player caught with first time violation of the Joint Drug Program will be suspended from eighty games with no payment. This was increased from fifty games. The second violation will lead to 162 game suspension from the previous 100 games. The third violation of the Program will lead to a permanent ban from baseball.
  • The players will be denied payment during their suspensions leading to financial strains. As a result, the players will reduce their rate of purchasing and using the performance-enhancement drugs.
  • Every player who has received any suspension based on the violations of the anti-drug policy will receive six extra urine tests which will be conducted every year in their whole baseball career.

4.0 Soccer
Performance enhancing drugs are meant to improve the performance of the users in the sports. There have been measures associated with forming different agencies to deal with this issue with heavy penalties following those who test positive for the performance enhancing drugs.
According to a study conducted by BBC, there is a likelihood of more than one hundred and fifty soccer players who are playing under the influence of performance enhancing drugs. Furthermore, nearly half of the entire players disclose to know a partner taking drugs for recreational purposes[35].
4.1 Drug Use in Association to Soccer
Like many high-profile games, soccer is also associated with some high-profile cases of drug use. Most cases are from recreational purposes such as the issue of Diego Maradona in 1991. Maradona, who used cocaine, is among one of the well-known examples. In soccer, issues of drug enhancing substances is minimal when compared to sports such as baseball and basketball. However, further investigations and collaboration seem to be of necessity in accordance with data collection, detection methods and banned drugs worldwide[36].
4.2 International Associations
4.2.1 FIFA
Upon the 2006 approach to the FIFA world cup, the congress of FIFA endorsed the World Anti-Doping Agency program being the last Olympic sport to agree to anti-doping. With exceptions, FIFA applied a ban for two years minimum for those found to offend the law for the first time[37]. In the first sentence, FIFA would reduce the endorsement to a warning for the first time if proven that the materials used were not intended to improve their performances where they would face a two-year ban if repeated for the second time plus a lifetime ban which would be faced by a repetition leading to a third time (Edelman and Wilson 60).
Biological passports were introduced in 2014 in accordance to the 2014 world cup with urine and blood samples collected from all players before the competition started and a further two random players in each match with the Swiss laboratory for doping analyzing the samples (Le 87).
4.2.2 UEFA
In the year 2006-2007, UEFA made an announcement of three cases of drug use for its competition in the season. They all failed the drug test with two of the three being involved with cannabis and where one was involved to have a very high absorption of betamethasone during the 2008 UEFA Euro qualifier[38]. In the 2006-2007 season, UEFA carried in and out tests of one thousand six hundred and sixty-two competition with an inclusion of blood tests for nine hundred and thirty-two individual players for doping substances (Budzinski and Feddersen 88).
4.3 Drug Control
Since the first drug test thirty-eight years ago in Mexico City after the nicotinoyl tartrate and amphetamine related deaths during the 1968 Olympic games and where several cyclists died in 1967 during the tour de France in the Olympic games held in France, there has been several measures impacted so as to deal with doping issues (Healey 63). However, these control measures have not bared much in controlling sports women and men in the control of performance enhancement drugs for sports men and women are still consuming them both in and out of competitions[39].
In accordance to these issues, FIFA and other sporting association have stated several vital measures aimed at controlling and implementing the policies enacted by the anti-doping agency.  The policies include: preservation and upholding sports ethics, protect mental integrity and physical health of players and lastly ensure to provide equal chances to all competitors.
FIFA first introduced measures to control drug use in 1970 with an aim of fair outcomes and reflection to the participants in the competition in accordance to their ability[40]. The FIFA medical committee has an obligation to implement controls of all doping issues in all its competition plus the coordination with member associations and confederations (McDermott 91).
Today, harmful and banned drug substance are available openly even without prescription. Some drugs like nandrolone and others can easily by ordered and purchased in different websites in the internet in large and unlimited quantities. Reaction drugs like cocaine and marijuana have greatly increased and attracted a need to be addressed accordingly[41]. However, media reports in some cases encourage the use of such drugs to the players mostly in the lower competition levels in sports and refer them to experimenting the doping drugs without putting into consideration the amount of danger they are exposing the sports men and women to not forgetting the lawful penalties of their engagements (Edelman and Wilson 70).
4.4 Drug Use in Soccer
Doping is referred to as the attempt or effort by the player or at a commencement of another player like a doctor, manager, masseur, coach, physiotherapist or trainer for the purpose of enhancing physical and mental physiological performance or treatment injuries or ailments in a case when this is unified medically for a single reason of being part in a rivalry. Therefore, this is an inclusion of using substances that are prohibited either by injecting or taking them by prescription or administering them previously or during a match[42]. Peptide hormones, anabolic steroids as well as components providing the same related effects have been stipulated to have been applied tests out of competition.
4.4.1 Albania
Alban Dragusha, a 24-year-old defender from Besa tested positive for nandrolone metabolites drug test in 2007 leading to his twenty-four-month suspension by UEFA after he participated in a competition in Belgrade for a UEFA Cup match[43].
4.4.2 Argentina
Diego Maradona holds one of the greatest and high-profile cases of doping in the soccer world. For an intake of ephedrine, Diego was immediately suspended during a FIFA world cup in 1994 held in the United States which was followed by an eighteen month ban[44]. While playing for an Italian club, Napoli in 1991, Maradona had tested positive for cocaine where he was suspended for fifteen months.
4.4.3 Australia
A Perth glory player, Stan Lazaridus was found guilty by the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency for testing positive for a medication which turned out to be a alopecia prescription and was banned in January 2007. The drug had the ability to mask agents for substances enhancing performance. He was followed by a twelve-month deferral from soccer. He had taken the drugs as a prescription by his doctor rather than to mask performance enhancement substances[45]. However, the agency referred it as a violation of the Anti-Doping Agency thus suspending the player for twelve months.
4.4.4 East Germany
In the former GDR, football was not viewed as an internationally successful enough sport unlike the others and thus did not have a drug program ran by the government thus could not give enough justification of the expenses. In October 1983, Manfred Hoppner who headed the medicine department in East Germany made accusation to 1. FC Lok Leipzig and Dynamo Berlin where he accused the teams for Methamphetamine and Amphetamine traces during their travel to European cup matches in thirteen out of nineteen dynamo players which he also added had been administered to the players only three days before. On the other hand, only some plyers from Lok had been found with few traces of the drugs[46]. A former dynamo player named Falcao Gotz who was later a manager in the German Bundesliga in Hertha BSC and 1. FC Nurnberg had previously denied allegations which he later admitted being administered drugs which were declared to be vitamin additives during his active period in the club[47].
4.4.5 England
So far only one premier league player has been found with doping issues. He failed a drug test, testing positive during a league match. According to reports from the United Kingdom independent sampling officers, a statement was released stating that clubs keep out players that they suspect to be using drugs off training for plus an omission from the squad if at all they have an advance tip of the ISO inspection with the players name not appearing in the provided list. Unlike in sports like athletics, cycling and cricket, soccer players are rarely tested. Testers availed themselves in only thirty-two, out of more than three thousand five hundred matches in the league. In the 1999-2000 season, samples of two players from each side were taken. In September 2003, Rio Ferdinand was faced with high profile case where he failed a drug test where he was faced with an eight month ban as a punishment[48].
The World Anti-Doping Agency was confronted by the FA in July 2009 with an aim of complying with the agencies international anti-doping code as stated in a proposal from the FA to WADA following the footsteps of other sports like tennis, golf and rugby in the UK had done. This was because of a lot of pressure from sport England and the UK sport and other organizations to comply with WADA and go a step further to putting forward England’s first national team players for testing[49].
In the 2002-2003 season, two players failed the test. Billy Turley a goalkeeper from Rushden & Diamonds was found guilty of taking an anabolic steroid and he was given a warning. He was the first player to be banned from a domestic match for six months after he failed a cocaine test which was regarded as a reactional drug. Chelsea’s Adrian Mutu faced a seven month ban for failing a cocaine test and was afterward released by Chelsea[50].
In November 2005, Abel Xavier from Middlesbrough faced an eighteen month ban from UEFA after failing a drug test for dianabol after a match held on twenty ninth September 2005[51]. As opposed to reactional drugs, he was the first player in the premier league history to face a ban from performance enhancing drugs.
Mamadou Sakho from Liverpool faced a burn by UEFA in 2016 by taking fat-burning substances. The charges were later dropped, and the charges discharged after further investigations[52].
5.0 DOPING PENALTIES
5.1 Performance Enhancing Drugs
There are various types of drugs used in performance enhancing which include stimulants, diuretics, human growth hormone and anabolic steroids. Stimulants, not leaving the amphetamines, are drugs that are used to impact majorly on the central nervous system which in return decrease appetite and increase alertness. On the other hand, diuretics are drugs that have been banned due to their ability to mask the other drugs during a urine test plus their significance in achieving weight loss rapidly (Edelman and Wilson 37).
The human growth hormone has a great impact in improving strength and endurance. Finally, the use of synthetic and natural substances in anabolic steroids help in building the mass of muscles, as a result, this gives sports men and women the urge to put more effort in training and a result of quick recovery from persistent exercises[53].
5.1.1 General Measures Dealing with Drug Use
1967- A medical commission was established by the International Olympic Committee which dealt and would respond to the increased use of substances enhancing performance.[54]
1981- Thrower Ben Plucknett was the subject of discussion by the American’s after he tested positive for steroids. He was banned from taking part in the international Amateur Athletic Federation. Additional the athlete was stripped of the medal that he had won earlier.[55]
1987- Testing of players for steroids was started by the National Football League.
1988- The anti-drug abuse act was passed by the congress thus making distribution and possession of anabolic steroids a crime for non-medical purposes.
1990- The 1988 law was strengthened by the Congress where they categorized the anabolic steroids as substances that can be controlled.
1999- Establishment of the World Anti-Doping Agency.[56]
2000- Establishment of the US Anti-Doping Agency.
2002- An investigation is launched by the federal authorities to investigate BALCO, a California based lab which was alleged of being part of selling drugs to athletes which would enhance their performance.
2003- Baseball players began to be tested for steroids by the major league.
February 2005- an autobiography was published by a retired baseball star named Jose Canseco. In the biography, he recounts how he used steroids plus implicating other players.[57]
March 2005- Sammy Sosa, Mark McGwire, and Canseco were among the six current and former baseball stars who testified before the House Government Reform Committee of the use of drugs in baseball.[58]
March 2006- former US Sen. George Mitchell would lead an investigation of steroid use among professional baseball players as announced by MLB commissioner Bud Selig.[59]
August 22, 2006- Justin Gatlin, a sprinter, was banned for eight years by the USADA for a second positive test result for banned substances plus being obligated to pay for his one hundred meter race.
May 2007- Bjarne Riis, a 1996 Tour de France winner, was told to return his first yellow placed jersey after he admitted to having used drugs enhancing performance to win his title.
September 20, 2007- Cyclist Floyd Landis, a winner of the Tour de France, was given a two-year ban and stripped off his 2006 title after a positive result for the synthetic testosterone test.
December 13, 2007 – release of the Mitchell report with names of MLB players Roger Clemens, Andy Pettitte and Barry Bonds appearing in the steroid report.[60]
February 2008 – a former employee of the New York Mets, Kirk Radomski distributes steroids and pleads guilty where he is followed by a five years’ trial.
February 2009 – Alex Rodriguez, a former Texas Rangers player admits to having been using drugs that would enhance performance.
January 2010 – Mark McGwire discloses to be consuming steroids in his profession.[61]
February 2012 – Alberto Contador a three-time winner of the Tour de France is unpainted of his 2010 title where he is found with drugging issues.
August 2012 – Tyler Hamilton, an American cyclist admitted to doping and was stripped of his 2004 gold medal.
January 2013 – HGH introduced random testing which was announced by MLB.
July 2013 – Ryan Braun, one of the Milwaukee Brewers violates the drug policy of the league thus suspended without pay.[62]
August 2013 – Miguel Tejada, a Kansas City Royal’s player, is suspended for 105 games by MLB for amphetamine use.[63]
September 2014 – the NFL endorsed an agreement calling for the HGH overhaul and testing of the drug program and it’s player’s association to agree regarding the drugs enhancing performance in the leagues.[64]
January 2015 – a three-time champion of the Boston marathon named Rita Jeptoo from Kenya faced a two-year ban for doping.[65]
September 2015 – an announcement by the DEA concerning the arrest of ninety people and some underground steroid laboratories amounting to sixteen were shut down during the operation cyber juice through the drug bust sweeping.[66]
November 9, 2015 – Russian athletes are found to have a cheating culture which is deep-rooted from all levels which are a result submitted by WADA regarding the doping evidence leading to its suspension from being one of the IAAF members coming hand in hand with the doping allegations.[67]
March 2016 – During an Australian Open, Maria Sharapova, a tennis player faces a two-year suspension after a press conference where she admits to having failed a drug test with the ban later reduced to one year and three months.[68]
July 18, 2016 – a doping program is run by Russia with WADA recognizing the state-sponsored event during the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2014. A report from WADA is later released on December 9, 2016, stating a benefit of more than one thousand athletes from Russia all across thirty sports.[69]
August 4, 2016 – from the three hundred and eighty-nine banned athletes, two hundred and seventy-one athletes were cleared by the IOC to participate in the Olympics and games at large.[70]
August 7, 2016 – a Chinese swimmer from the Olympic team is banned after having a positive test to hydrochlorothiazide which is a drug associated with increased pressure in the blood and one that doubles to form diuretic.
January 25, 2017 – one of Usain bolts teammates in 2008 four by one hundred meters tested positive for a banned substances, methylhexaneamine thus ruling out the victory.
 
5.2 Individual Penalties for Violations
5.2.1 Suspension and Disqualification
Suspension refers to a period through which a player or a team is declared ineligible to play for a given period after which he can resume playing for the team when the given time elapses. There have been many cases of suspension in the field of sports all over the world. Most the suspensions take place in the cycling and athletics sports when compared to sports like baseball, basketball and soccer. Swimming is also greatly affected by the suspension cases.
The suspension cases are listed in the sporting constitution where every sport has its own constitution defining the terms of suspension for the players in the sport. In basketball, for instance, the constitution lists the penalties under Article 21 of the NBA[71].
In general, the sport authorities and WADA had previously agreed on a two-year suspension for any individuals considered to have violated the drug policies. More so, most of the suspensions are granted to individuals who have been said to violate the policies unintentionally such as using over-the-counter drugs.
In addition, there are those individuals who are found to violate the drug laws on a first positive test, they are also given two years suspension or less depending on the severity of the crime after which they are reinstated[72]. The titles and honors which the players had earned are stripped off and the results are disqualified.
5.2.2 BANS
A ban refers to the act of being permanently suspended from the sporting activity. In the sporting sector, there are several athletes and players who have been completely banned from participation in their field of expertise. Most of these athletes are caught with crimes of engaging in the use of prohibited drugs in the sporting activities. Most of the time, the individuals test positive for substance use in a couple of tests[73]. Consequentially, they are put under rehabilitation and therapy during their suspensions. If they fail to correct their behaviors during the given time, they are banned from playing in their respective sports.
5.3 Team Penalties
When there is more than one member of a team caught with the crime of violating drug substances, the authorities in that game call in the Target Testing during the game or the event. The target testing involves the process through which specific athletes using a specific method of selection at a specified time[74]. In case the said athletes test positive, then certain sanctions may apply to the teams in addition to the penalties of the said athletes.
The sanctions applied to the team may involve cases of immediate disqualification from that event. More so, the team may suffer loss of points also as a penalty for the team allowing its members to violate the Anti-Doping Rule. In other cases, the teams may also be suspended from playing in several matches in the season[75].
5.4 Harsher Penalties
The sporting authorities including WADA have evaluated the doping situation in sports and have decided that harsher punishments are in line to reduce the cases and give every competitor an equal chance of winning.
5.4.1 Use of Steroid Passports
There are biological passports already established in the sporting sector where athletes in the fields of cycling, cross-country skiing, and athletics are already required to carry when they are going for any competitions. The bio passports are used to record blood readings which are then used to establish whether the individual is using drugs or not.
The Steroid passport will be used to record the testosterone levels of the athletes. The steroid passports will be implemented in almost all sports in the sector. This move will make it easier for WADA to test the athletes for all steroids inclusive of the designer drugs. More so, it is a way of discouraging the athletes from cheating in the sports in as many ways as possible. The reason behind this is that the athletes will be in bigger trouble if they test positive, yet they possess the steroids passports[76]. This would mean that the athletes who are intentionally using drugs would suffer a harsher penalty in their career.
5.4.2 Four-Year Ban
The sports authorities and WADA have also agreed upon a harsher punishment where individuals who are caught using drugs intentionally for the first time will be subjected to four years suspension while the second time will lead to a lifetime suspension.
The authorities claim that the harsher punishment is effective in sending a stronger message to the athletes to reduce cases of doping which will go unnoticed for a long time. They then use the case of Lance Armstrong in cycling as reference[77]. The cases of drug use have recently increased possibly due to the less harsh punishments imposed on those caught using drugs. The athletes are willing to take a risk of either being caught or winning the sports unnoticed. They use more sophisticated drugs called designer drugs which are not easily detected in their blood during the tests. The four-year penalty for any athlete caught using drugs will really discourage the others from doing such since it is quite a considerable amount of time to waste in their careers and in most cases, they might not be able to recover from the suspension.
5.4.3 Testing Methods
Technology has enabled people in the medical sector in sports to come up with better way of detecting and identifying the different types of drugs used for doping. The athletes have also learned of ways to go through the tests undetected using designer drugs. As such, the technology in the medical sector has enabled them to detect the drugs before they get deep into the market.
More so, WADA had a challenge with the testing of minute drops of blood where they were unable to come up with valid results regarding the tests they were conducting. In realization of this challenge, they have been able to increase the amount of blood extracted from every individual to enable accurate testing as well as multiple testing for different substances at one time[78].
5.4.4 Education and Creating Awareness
The biggest weapon of them all is the education programs put in place to ensure that the athletes are well educated on the list of prohibited drugs by the sports authorities. This will ensure that the athletes avoid the over-the-counter drugs which could contain the drug substances included in the list of prohibited drugs. More so, the sports authorities have notified the players of the risk of taking the prescribed drugs since they are at a risk of facing a four-year suspension which could greatly affect their career[79].
In addition, the athletes should be notified about the health effects of the drugs they are consuming. Most of the drugs have been found to be cancerous and to cause infertility. Other drugs have effects of causing baldness and increase the chances of health risks such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart attacks.
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
There are various types of drugs used in performance-enhancing which include stimulants, diuretics, human growth hormone and anabolic steroids. Stimulants, not leaving the amphetamines, are drugs that are used to impact majorly on the central nervous system which in return decrease appetite and increase alertness. On the other hand, diuretics are drugs that have been banned due to their ability to mask the other drugs during a urine test plus their significance in achieving weight loss rapidly. The human growth hormone has an enormous impact on improving strength and endurance.[80] Finally, the use of synthetic and natural substances in anabolic steroids helps in building the mass of muscles. As a result, this gives sportsmen and women the urge to put more effort in training and a result of quick recovery from persistent exercises.
In the sporting sector, several athletes and players have been completely banned from participation in their field of expertise. Most of these athletes are caught with crimes of engaging in the use of prohibited drugs in the sporting activities. Most of the time, the individuals are positive for substance use in a couple of tests. Consequentially, they are put under rehabilitation and therapy during their suspensions. If they fail to correct their behaviors during the given time, they are banned from playing in their respective sports. The drugs used in this case are not just any other drugs but those associated with enhancing the performance of the athletes. Other than in the Olympics, the drugs are also used by soccer, baseball, and basketball players in addition to the cyclists.[81] The use of drug in enhancing performance in sports is considered unethical and illegal. The sports organizations and authorities have taken the doping issue very seriously. As such they have put in place stringent penalties and rules for the individuals who will be caught using the drugs. There are organizations such as the International Association of Athletics Federation, FIFA, IAAF, Union Cyclist International and the International Olympic Committee.
The sports federation has been greatly assisted by the progress in pharmacology which has to enable them easily to detect most types of doping drugs used by the athletes. The improvement in pharmacology has also enabled organizations to detect the methods and tricks used to make the consumed drugs undetectable. Some sporting activities have been stricter in eradicating the doping activities while others are not putting as much effort. In the early ages, the fittest athletes and combatants were selected to represent their nation where most of them were fed with nutritious diets which were meant to be beneficial during their sporting activities. Some bodies such as cycling, and athletics have been very strict on the doping activities while others such as the soccer and baseball bodies are not paying attention to doping cases.
FIBA and NBA have also signed the agreements which prohibit doping in the sporting activities. However, over the past years, Basketball authorities have been continuously accused of failing to take the doping cases in sports seriously, and as such, WADA has accused them of creating gaps in the NBA Anti-Drug Programs policy.[82]  Other major professional sports have tried to put in a lot of efforts in ensuring that they implement the World Anti-Doping Code. In the NBA, it is not a typical phenomenon for drug violation scandals in the sport when compared to the NFL and MLB. The Food and Drug Administration said that all individuals be extra careful when dealing taking the over-the-counter drugs.  Drug use in professional sports is also associated with some high profile cases mostly for recreational purposes. However, further investigations and collaboration seem to be necessitated by data collection, detection methods, and banned drugs worldwide.
FIFA endorsed the World Anti-Doping Agency program being the last Olympic sport to agree to anti-doping. With exceptions, FIFA applied a ban for two years minimum for those found to offend the law for the first time. FIFA would reduce the endorsement to a warning for the first time if proven that the materials used were not intended to improve their performances. Repeat offending would attract a two-year ban. Three-time culprits are to be handed a lifetime sidelining from sports. UEFA carried in and out tests of one thousand six hundred and sixty-two competition with an inclusion of blood tests for nine hundred and individual players for doping. Control measures have not bared much in controlling sportswomen and men in the control of performance enhancing drugs for sportsmen and women are still consuming them both in and out of competitions.
FIFA and other sporting association have stated some vital measures aimed at controlling and implementing the policies enacted by the anti-doping agency. The policies include preservation and upholding ethics in sports, protect the mental integrity and physical health of players and lastly ensure to provide equal chances to all competitors.[83] FIFA first introduced measures to control doping in 1970 with the aim of fair outcomes and reflection to the participants in the competition by their ability. The FIFA medical committee must implement controls of all doping issues in all its competition plus the coordination with member associations and confederations. Suspension refers to a period through which a player or a team is declared ineligible to play for a given period after which he can resume playing for the team when the given time elapses. There have been very many cases of suspension in the field of sports all over the world. Most the suspensions take place in the cycling and athletics sports when compared to sports like baseball, basketball, and soccer. Swimming is also affected by cases of doping.
The suspension cases are listed in the sporting constitution where every sport has its constitution defining the terms of suspension for the players in the sport. In basketball, for instance, the constitution lists the penalties under Article 21 of the NBA. In general, the sports authorities and WADA had previously agreed on a two-year suspension for any individuals considered to have violated the drug policies. More so, most of the suspensions are granted to individuals who have been said to violate the policies unintentionally such as through the use of over-the-counter drugs. Also, there are those individuals who are found to violate the drug laws on a first positive test; they are also given two years suspension or less depending on the severity of the crime after which they are reinstated. The titles and honors which the players had earned are stripped off, and the results are disqualified.[84]
Today, harmful and banned drug substance are available openly even without prescription. Some drugs like nandrolone and others can easily buy ordered and purchased in different websites on the internet in large and unlimited quantities. Reaction drugs like cocaine and marijuana have increased and attracted a need to be addressed accordingly. However, media reports in some cases encourage the use of such drugs to the players mostly in the lower competition levels in sports and refer them to experimenting the doping drugs without putting into consideration the amount of danger they are exposing the sportsmen and women to not forgetting the penalties of their engagements. However, many players face the consequences for their actions with bans and suspensions. Suspension refers to a period through which a player or a team is declared ineligible to play for a given period after which he can resume playing for the team when the given time elapses.
When there is more than one member of a team caught with the crime of violating drug substances, the authorities in that game call in the Target Testing during the game or the event. The target testing involves the process through which specific athletes using one particular method of selection at a specified time. Most of these athletes are caught with crimes of engaging in the use of prohibited drugs in the sporting activities. Most of the time, individuals test positive for substance use in a couple of tests. Consequentially, they are put under rehabilitation and therapy during their suspensions. If they fail to correct their behaviors during the given time, they are banned from playing in their respective sports. In case athletes test positive, then certain sanctions may apply to the teams in addition to the penalties of the said athletes. The sanctions applied to the team may involve cases of immediate disqualification from that event. More so, the team may suffer the loss of points also as a penalty for the team allowing its members to violate the Anti-Doping Rule. In other cases, the teams may also be suspended from playing in some matches in the season.
Finally, strict measures should be put in place to eliminate drug use in all sports despite its intended purpose. Those who fail the drug tests should suffer an extended ban period to eradicate any roots and individuals who might think or be tempted to use performance-enhancing drugs about the ban. These harsher punishments would force the athletes to think twice before they decided to use drugs, thus creating the fair, competitive, healthy and fun environment that the world of sports was meant to be.
7.0 Works Cited
Bangsbo, Jens, et al. Science and Football Viii: The Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress on Science and Football. Taylor and Francis, 2016.
Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
McDermott, Vanessa. The War on Drugs in Sport: Moral Panics and Organizational Legitimacy. 2016.
Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.


[1] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[2] Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
[3] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[4] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[5] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[6] McDermott, Vanessa. The War on Drugs in Sport: Moral Panics and Organizational Legitimacy. 2016.
[7] Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
[8] Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
[9] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[10] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[11] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[12] Bangsbo, Jens, et al. Science and Football Viii: The Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress on Science and Football. Taylor and Francis, 2016.
[13] Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
[14] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[15] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[16] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[17] McDermott, Vanessa. The War on Drugs in Sport: Moral Panics and Organizational Legitimacy. 2016.
[18] Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
[19] Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
[20] Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
[21] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[22] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[23] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[24] Bangsbo, Jens, et al. Science and Football Viii: The Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress on Science and Football. Taylor and Francis, 2016.
[25] Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
[26] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[27] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[28] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[29] McDermott, Vanessa. The War on Drugs in Sport: Moral Panics and Organizational Legitimacy. 2016.
[30] Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
[31] Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
[32] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[33] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[34] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[35] Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
[36] Bangsbo, Jens, et al. Science and Football Viii: The Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress on Science and Football. Taylor and Francis, 2016.
[37] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[38] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[39] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[40] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[41] Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
[42] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[43] Parry, John W. The Athlete’s Dilemma: Sacrificing Health for Wealth and Fame. 2017.
[44] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[45] Budzinski, Oliver, and Arne Feddersen. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics: Proceedings of the 5th Esea Conference. 2014.
[46] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[47] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[48] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[49] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[50] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[51] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[52] Perritano, John. Performance-enhancing Drugs: Steroids, Hormones, and Supplements. 2017.
[53] Vanden, Auweele Y, et al. Ethics and Governance in Sport: The Future of Sport Imagined. 2016.
[54] Id. at 34
[55] Id. at 37
[56] Id. at 37
[57] Id. at 41
[58] Id. at 42
[59] Id. at 45
[60] Id. at 46
[61] Id. at 47
[62] Id. at 53
[63] Id. at 59
[64] Id. at 58
[65] Id. at 61
[66] Id. at 63
[67] Id. at 65
[68] Id. at 72
[69] Id. at 75
[70] Id. at 78
[71] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[72] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[73] Moston, Stephen, and Terry Engelberg. Detecting Doping in Sport. 2017.
[74] Bangsbo, Jens, et al. Science and Football Viii: The Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress on Science and Football. Taylor and Francis, 2016.
[75] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[76] Rabin, Olivier, and Yannis Pitsiladis. Acute Topics in Anti-Doping. 2017.
[77] Healey, Justin. Doping and Drugs in Sport. 2013.
[78] Le, GrC. The Straight Dope: The Inside Story of Sport’s Biggest Drug Scandal. 2016.
[79] Edelman, Robert, and Wayne Wilson. The Oxford Handbook of Sports History. 2017.
[80] David, supra note 14.
[81] The European Union and sport, supra note 5.
[82] The NFL StarCaps case, supra note 6.
[83] Doping and Anti-Doping Policy in Sport, supra note 2.
[84] Handbook on international sports law, supra note 15.


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