A Study on Internet Advertising and Marketing

1.0. Summary

All around the globe, a tremendous development has occurred in the utilization of internet. The citizens of developed nations utilizing the internet facility have been found to be comprising of 20 to 25%. For the purpose of buying goods and services, huge prospects prevail for the utilization of internet. Development of enhanced methods of product advertisement to the customers were made possible for the online advertisers with the help of a huge number of narrative formats of advertisement which was developed right from the past along with the promotion of superior methods. The question with regard to how efficient they are arises in spite of this increasing number of online advertisement formats.

Scrutinizing the method in which a single advertiser controlled aspect or advertising format along with 2 sets of customer related aspects comprising of demographic motives and variables for internet utilization which had been influencing the perception of the customers with regard to internet advertising is the key objective of this study. In the present the researcher accounted the considerable behaviour of people with special reference to Internet advertising.

What are you going to investigate

The present research will investigate from the point of view of customers and also examined how both consumer related factors such as internet motives and also advertised controlled factors such as the format of advertising have influence the belief of the customers, which in turn affected the avoidance intention and attitude with reference to advertising through internet.

Why are you going to do this and why is it important

The internet has been considered as an important medium of communication between the consumers and marketers (Townsend, 2001) due to the increasing tendency to adopt social networking sites like you tube, twitter, face book etc. There are several studies on user attitude of participations, behaviour of users (Sin and Tse, 2002; Shavitt and Kanfer, 1999). However these studies do not focus on the push or pull medium marketing point of view as researcher. Thus, the present dissertation fills this gap. Further the present study is conducted in India and UK and thus, it sever as a platform for future studies conducted on this topic.

Who will benefit from your findings

The study will be useful to marketer who wanted to do internet marketing and also the study will be conducted in France and UK and thus, it sever as a platform for future studies conducted on this topic.

How will they benefit from your findings?

The study findings would help the customer to know the potential of internet marketing and also future measures such as Integrated marketing communication (IMC). Further the study finding will help to promote more activities and advertising measures. Further it helps to promote the new strategies and enhance the online marketing methods efficiency.

Research Objectives

Thus with the background the following research objectives will be developed.

  1. To investigate the online advertising effectiveness from the point of customers
  2. To study the impact of consumer related factors (CRF) and advertiser controlled factors (ADF) on advertising use
  3. To assess the influence of CRF and ADF on variables that are interrelated including such as actual avoidance of internet advertising, intentions to avoid, attitude and belief
  4. To investigate on disregards paid inclusion and paid placement
  5. To examine on the effect of format of advertising on avoidance intentions and behavior and user perceptions with particular reference to internet advertising.

Literature Review

Theories linked to this study include the expectancy-value theory from social psychology and the uses and gratifications theory from mass communication. The expectancy-value theory proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen (2000) proposes that people’s beliefs about the characteristics of an object (expectancies), weighted by the values they attach to these characteristics (values), will affect their outlook pertaining to that object, which in turn affects their behavioral intention and actual behavior toward that object.

1. Expectancy-Value Theory

As Galloway and Meek (2001) have rightly pointed out, the expectancy-value theory should be more properly regarded as a broad perspective than a single theory. Under this umbrella there exist many variations with different emphases. Despite these differences, “all of them view either behavior, behavioral intentions, or attitudes (or all three) as a function of (1) expectancy (belief)–that is, the probability that an attitude object possesses a particular attribute or that a behavior will have a particular consequence; and (2) evaluation that is, the degree of affect, positive or negative, toward an attribute or behavioral outcome” (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 2002).

2. Belief-Attitude Relationship

Beliefs comprise the essential foundation in the framework (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2001). There are three different types of beliefs. One kind is descriptive beliefs. This type of beliefs is gained through direct observation and experience. The second type is inferential beliefs. This type of beliefs is formed through a process of inference (correct or incorrect) from some prior beliefs and experiences.

3. Attitude—Behavioral Intention—Behavior Relationship

In the Fishbein and Ajzen (2001) model, attitudes directly influence behavioral intentions and indirectly influence actual behavior through intentions. They held that the general attitude toward an object predicts behavioral intentions and behaviors in a general way. It is more likely to affect the general, overall patterns of behavioral intentions and behaviors instead of specific, single-act behavioral intentions or behaviors.

4. Predictors of Beliefs

Fishbein and Ajzen’s (2001) conceptual framework basically postulates an information-processing model. Human beings are viewed as logical beings using available information to judge, evaluate and arrive at decisions. Their model stresses the significance of distinguishing between beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors and at simultaneously treats these variables as an integrated set of interrelated variables.

5. Uses and Gratifications

The theory of gratification and uses has emerged as one of the dominant theories guiding research on audience orientations. It is summarized by Katz et al, (2003) as a theory that is referred with “(1) the social and psychological origins of (2) needs, which generates (3) expectations of (4) the mass media or other sources, which lead to (5) differential patterns of media exposure (or engagement in other activities), resulting in (6) need gratifications and (7) other consequences, perhaps mostly unintended ones”(p.20).

6. Expectancy-Value Approach to Uses and Gratifications

“Early studies in uses and gratifications focused mainly on providing categories of audience uses and motives and were therefore descriptive in nature” (Rayburn, 2002). In the 2000s, ‘the focus shifted to theory building and researchers started to analyze ways in which audience motives, expectations, and media behaviors are related” (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 2002). Although several studies have referred to “some idea of expectancy, attempts to link the uses and gratifications theory with the expectancy-value theory did not take place till the early 2000s” (Palmgreen & Rayburn, 2002).

7. Individual Characteristics and Media Uses and Gratifications

Although as a larger theory about human behavior Fishbein and Ajzen’s (2000) model has not examined the symptoms of beliefs systematically, the more specific uses and gratifications theory has incorporated individual characteristics in its paradigm (Katz et al., 2004; Donohew et al, 2007). Individual characteristics are regarded as a significant source in triggering motivations for media consumption and are incorporated into the Palmgreen model of media gratifications (Palmgreen and Rayburn, 2002).

8. Applications of the Uses and Gratifications Theory

The uses and gratifications theory has been applied to a wide expanse of media and media content studies (Reid and Soley, 2005a). A large number of studies have focused on some aspects of television, but other media and media content, such as home VCR, channel surfing with remote control, supermarket tabloids and horoscopes, have also been examined (Reid and Soley, 2005a). “Researchers have identified ranging motives for people’s media use, such as entertainment, surveillance, information, diversion, escape, social interaction, parasocial interaction, identity, passing time and companionship” (Faber, 2004).

Beliefs About, Attitudes Toward, and Avoidance of Advertising

9. Public Attitudes Toward Advertising in General

In business firms, advertising practitioners as well as academics the cause of concern would be from the perspective of Public attitudes toward advertising have been examined for over seventy years. There is evidence that attitudes toward advertising are significant symptoms to several important parameters related to the advertising effectiveness.

10. Beliefs about Advertising

Beliefs and attitudes differ according to Fishbein and Ajzen (2005). Beliefs are subjective statements that link an object with certain attributes (for instance, Internet advertising is entertaining) or results(Internet advertising supports the development of Internet). Attitudes are conclusive evaluations of an object (e.g., Internet advertising is a good thing). In line with Fishbein and Ajzen’s conceptualization, Attitude was defined as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner toward advertising in general” (Hall, 2005, p. 54).

11. Moderating Effect of Advertising Medium or Format on Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Advertising

Although Hargittai (2005) have noted the moderating effect of the advertising instrument on attitude toward advertising, many later studies analyzing general attitudes toward advertising in traditional media have not distinguished between varying media.

12. Advertising Beliefs, Attitudes, and Avoidance Behaviors

Jansen & Resnick, 2007) studied the symptoms of advertising avoidance in four traditional media (magazines, newspapers, radio, and television) and found that beliefs about advertising’s attributes were the strongest predictors of advertising avoidance and were best in distinguishing between print from broadcast media. Hall (2005) also found perceptive antecedents significantly predicted users’Internet advertising avoidance.

13. Internet Motives and Beliefs about Advertising

James and Kover (2002) stated that information processing in a communicative atmosphere begins with the individual, who visits the Internet with certain aims and tries to fulfill these aima through their Internet utilization. They therefore proposed that reasons for using the Internet will influence the outlook of and attitude toward advertising.

Section 5: Detailed plan of research. A clear time plan of when the research will be undertaken. In this the following questions should be answered:

What information gathering techniques will you use?

The present study researcher will adopt quantitative techniques rather than qualitative. The data will collected in numerical format, while in qualitative, it will be textual format. Further in quantitative analysis, the generalization of the results is possible while this cannot be done in the later. Further, considering the cost and time factors, researcher in the present study will use quantitative study, where the generalization of the results would be objective. Thus, the questionnaire will be developed based on the previous literature and tested empirically in the present study.


This research uses a quantitative measure of research strategy. Objectivity, generalization as well as reliability of the chosen research strategy can be arrived at by using quantitative tools of data analysis (Creswell 2003). However when looks at qualitative tools of analysis are based on analyzing the available content presented in a non numerical format. Therefore it is often generalized that quantitative study is objective in nature while qualitative study is subjective in nature.

What type of information will you need to gather and what type of questions will you need to ask?

In the present study, researcher will adopt survey method and the questionnaire will be used to administer. Further the questionnaire will have a socio demographic question, the second part will determine the participant’s attitude with reference to internet usage and third section is about the beliefs and attitude of the participants with reference to internet use for marketing. Finally, the push or pull factor as an important effective tool of marketing will also be included. The Likert scale will be used in order to ensure uniform scaling.

How will the information be gathered in practice?

The information will be gathered through the questionnaire and details of the questionnaire are explained above

When and where will the information be gathered in practice?

The study will be conducted in colleges France and UK. The colleges will be chosen based on the judgemental sampling in order to represent both the countries. The study will be conducted during the month of June 2011.

Who will provide you with the information?

The questionnaire will be administered to the students of different colleges. These are population who tend to use internet more frequently. Further they also get free internet access and search information through online for assignments and coursework.

What analysis techniques will you use?

The study will use descriptive statistics and T-test to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variable. The mean, median and standard deviation will be used.

Reliability, validity and generalizability

In order to ensure the reliability, the study will adopt the pilot study and also samples chosen will be relevant to the study objective. Further face and content validity will be taken care to ensure the validity. In quantitative study, the obtained findings will be generalized to other population. .

Timeline – present a graphical representation of when key events will occur

Give clear comment on reliability, validity and generalisability. This relates to what you think are the limitations of your research approach.

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